Langenegger SJ, Funk J, Toteberg-Harms M. Reproducibilty of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements using the eye tracker and the retest function of Spectralis SD-OCT in glaucomatous and healthy control eyes. Am J Ophthalmol. Retinal ganglion cell atrophy correlated with automated perimetry in human eyes with glaucoma. [11], One common special case is the myopic patient. Glaucoma Imaging Tests The glaucoma imaging tests are a reliable way for your doctor to monitor glaucoma progression. OCT measures the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in glaucoma and other diseases of the optic nerve. This test will help a doctor determine whether your vision has been affected by glaucoma. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a commonly used imaging modality in the evaluation of glaucomatous damage. OCT is newer technology. Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: interpreting the RNFL maps in healthy myopic eyes. Mwanza JC, Bhorade AM, Sekhon N, et al. The current machines we use for OCT … Not every patient needs an OCT test. This page was last modified on April 5, 2020, at 08:09. A few diagnostic instruments are used routinely in clinical practice to diagnose glaucoma. The refractive error ranged from -12.00 D to +8.00 D.3  Due to this relatively small normative database and wide variation of distribution of RNFL, many results obtained by SD-OCT may be flagged as abnormal statistically in patients who are not represented in the database and thus not necessarily representing real disease. This can … The TECNIS ® Toric II 1-Piece posterior chamber lens is indicated for the visual correction of aphakia and pre-existing corneal astigmatism of one diopter or greater in adult patients with or without presbyopia in whom a cataractous lens has been removed by phacoemulsification and who desire improved uncorrected distance vision, reduction in residual refractive cylinder, and increased spectacle … Usually, the visual field test is taken once a year but depending on the severity of your glaucoma, your doctor may decide to check your visual field more frequently. One study of Cirrus found excellent intravisit and intervisit reproducibility of measurements of peripapillary RNFL thickness and ONH parameters. [8] A more cautious cutoff would be a 10 µm change, roughly twice the maximum standard deviation found in that study. The signal strength, reported on a scale of 0 to 10, is defined as the averaged intensity value of the signal pixels in the OCT image. Glaucoma diagnostic accuracy of ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness: comparison with nerve fiber layer and optic nerve head. Glaucoma can cause vision loss, often without any warning signs or symptoms. Only four years later, several companies started to release the next generation technology, spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT), AKA fourier-domain OCT, which improved upon TD-OCT by capturing more data in less time at a higher axial image resolution, around 5 µm. A healthy retina is only ¼ of a millimeter thick, but it contains multiple layers of specialized cells. Due to this shift, although the peaks are of normal magnitude, they can be interpreted as thinned due to having a different distribution from the normative database. Cirrus does this by defining the edge of the disc as the termination of Bruch’s membrane and then finds the shortest perpendicular distance to ILM, AKA minimum band distance, to define the inner cup margin in each slice in a spiral around the optic disc cube data until a center is located. Mwanza JC, Durbin MK, Budenz DL, et al. OCT is now very commonly used by both ophthalmologists and optometrists as a means to have additional documentation of the nerve fiber layer status. Chong GT, Lee RK. However segmenting the ganglion cell layer alone is very difficult based on reflectivity and thus Cirrus chose to measure its Ganglion Cell Analysis (GCA) consisting of the combined ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner plexiform layer (IPL). Applanation Tonometry : It measures the eye pressure which is currently the only modifiable risk factor in glaucoma. The intervisit tolerance limit for average RNFL thickness was 3.89 µm suggesting that a reproducible decrease of 4 µm or more may be a statistically significant change. Effect of image quality on tissue thickness measurements with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Glaucoma causes various changes in optic nerve head and changes in the visual fields of an individual. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that allows eye care professionals to measure the thickness and health of your retina’s multiple layers. Alternatively, trend-based analysis defines progression by monitoring the change over time using regression analysis to provide a rate of progression and corresponding significance level.2. However, it is important to exclude any scans that are not of adequate quality. Progression is detected when the difference between baseline and a subsequent exam exceeds a predetermined threshold, based primarily on test-retest variability. Opt Express 2009;17:4019-4036. OCT gives optometrists a better ability to detect and monitor minute changes in the retina and optic nerve than is possible through a standard eye test alone. This is a review of the utility of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma. Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010;51:5724-5730. Glaucoma versus red disease: imaging and glaucoma diagnosis. Leung CK, Yu M, Weinreb RN, et al. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2012;23:79-88. The calculated ONH parameters, except for disc area, are then compared to a normative database (see figure 2).1, The ganglion cell layer is thickest in the perimacular region and decreased total macular thickness has been observed in glaucomatous eyes likely due to thinning of the ganglion cell layer in this region. The main sign is a cloudy cornea. Quigley HA, Dunkelberger GR, Green WR. Some doctors are using it to measure macular thickness and assess the status of glaucomatous damage. Typically, signs of glaucoma can be detected up to 4 years earlier with OCT than with traditional imaging methods. Ganglion cell analysis complicated by the presence of an epiretinal membrane. covers glaucoma tests once every 12 months if you’re at high risk for glaucoma. 3. Diagnosis of glaucoma and detection of glaucoma progression using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. [3] The Cirrus RNFL map represents a 6 x 6 mm cube of A-scan data centered over the optic nerve in which a 3.4 mm diameter circle of RNFL data is extracted to create what is referred to as the TSNIT map (temporal, superior, nasal, inferior, temporal). OCT has allowed us to intervene in the disease process before any functional loss has occurred and revolutionized the way we think about glaucoma. Liu L, Jia Y, Takusagawa HL, et al. This allows the 3.4 mm RNFL circle to always be centered in the same spot within the cube, which was not possible with TD-OCT. Glaucoma is a group of many conditions sharing a final common pathway characterized by accelerated death of retinal ganglion cells and their retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) axons resulting in characteristic visual field defects and corresponding optic nerve head anatomical changes. Ophthalmology 2007;114:2259-2264. The OCT Angiography (OCTA) is a non-invasive technology, marketed since 2014, that uses OCT with infrared light, with no radiation nor side effects, to evaluate within seconds the vascularization of the fundus, retina and optic nerve head, which may be useful for the glaucoma diagnosis. In the presence of perimetric disease, finding RNFL bundle loss on SD-OCT with a corresponding abnormality in the visual field served by those retinal ganglion cells can help confirm the diagnosis of glaucoma. Glaucoma is an eye disease usually caused by having elevated pressure in the eye. The commercially available spectral domain (SD)-OCT offers benefits in glaucoma assessment over the earlier generation of time domain-OCT due to increased axial resolution, faster scanning speeds and has been reported to have improved reproducibility but similar diagnostic … However, if damage is done to the optic nerve due to glaucoma, additional areas of blind spots will appear on the visual field test. The longer the eye, the thinner the RNFL, and the smaller the optic disc area and neuroretinal rim area. The only sure way to diagnose glaucoma is with a complete eye exam.A glaucoma screening that only checks eye pressure is not enough to find glaucoma.. During a glaucoma exam, your ophthalmologist will: measure your eye pressure; inspect your eye's drainage angle; examine your optic nerve for damage; test your peripheral (side) vision; take a picture or computer measurement of … When such correspondence is not found, caution should be exercised and sources of erroneous measurements should be sought, a few of which are reviewed below. If diagnosed early enough, glaucoma can be properly managed to prevent major loss of vision. It’s cutting-edge technology that allows optometrists to detect signs of glaucoma, among other serious eye conditions. This page has been accessed 183,758 times. Mwanza JC, Chang RT, Budenz DL, et al. 365.74 is for indeterminate stage of glaucoma, which includes unreliable/uninterpretable visual; field testing, patient incapable of visual field testing or visual field not performed yet. SD-OCT can directly measure and quantify RNFL thickness by calculating the area between the internal limiting membrane (ILM) and RNFL border (how the edge of the RNFL is determined and how blood vessels are handled are different among the machines, which do not have interchangeable measurement outputs). Scans with a signal strength less than 6, with eye movement or blinking artifacts within the 1.73-mm radius around the optic nerve head, or with segmentation errors should be repeated. Clinicians should use caution to avoid overtreating “red disease” in these situations. The TSNIT map displays RNFL thickness values by quadrants and clock hours, and the RNFL peaks give a sense of the anatomic distribution of nerve fiber axons represented by the superior and inferior bundles that emanate from the optic nerve (see figure 1).1, SD-OCT also automatically outlines the optic nerve head, optic cup, and disc borders similar to mental estimations by clinicians, but then also calculates more objective measurements such as optic disc area and neuroretinal rim area in addition to the classic clinician-subjective average and vertical cup-to-disc ratios. It can also detect if glaucoma is worsening over time. We are an advocate for the vision health of Ontarians. Beyond 55, people should have a glaucoma screening every year. Not every patient needs an OCT test. The Academy uses cookies to analyze performance and provide relevant personalized content to users of our website. Retinal nerve fiber layer split bundles are true anatomic variants. You’re African American and age 50 or older. We are Ontario’s designated leaders of the eye care team. Ophthalmology 2012;119:731-737. Again the calculated sectors are compared to a normative database.1, Several studies have been performed to assess the diagnostic capability of SD-OCT in perimetric glaucoma. Ensuring Access & Excellence in Cataract Surgery. These photographs are useful because they give detailed documentation of the appearance of the optic nerves, and they can be used as a baseline for future comparisons. 2. The tests are non-invasive and involve no radiation. 1989;107(5):453–64. [12] This may result in the temporal shift of the superior and inferior RNFL bundle peaks of normal magnitude. Leung CK, Yu M, Weinreb RN, et al. Savini G, Barboni P, Parisis V, et al. © The Eye Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario - 2018. Sensitivity and specificity of time-domain vs spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in diagnosing early to moderate glaucoma. Ethnically, 43% were Caucasian, 24% were Asians, 18% were African American, 12% were Hispanic, 1% were Indian, and 6% were of mixed ethnicity. Ophthalmology 2009; 116:1257-1263. Ophthalmoscopy is a dilated eye exam which examines the shape and the color of the optic nerve. A very important type of optic nerve imaging involves optic nerve photographs, or stereo disc photography. Event-based analysis defines progressive change when a follow up measurement exceeds a pre-established threshold for change from baseline. Jia Y, Wei E, Wang X, et al. Myopic eyes have thinner RNFL measurements, which can confound comparisons to the normative database. Agreement among spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instruments for assessing retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Due to the variability or possible artifacts with SD-OCT measurements, all changes on OCT should be correlated with visual field changes before confirming definite progression. Leite MT, Rao HL, Weinreb RN, et al. Occasionally, one will find that the segmentation lines are misplaced along the retina leading to errors in the calculation of RNFL thickness (see figure 9). In one study, artificially defocusing an image scan by +2 diopters resulted in an artifactual 10 µm thinning of the RNFL. You child’s eye doctor will diagnose congenital glaucoma. Structural changes in glaucoma can be detected with different imaging tools, including optical coherence tomography (OCT). Use of SD-OCT in Detection of Glaucomatous Progression, Repeatability and Reproducibility of SD-OCT, Aref AA, Budenz DL. You’re at high risk if one or more of these applies to you: You have diabetes. OCT became widely popular in 2002 with the release of Stratus OCT, a time-domain technology (TD-OCT) t… The normative database for the Cirrus SD-OCT consisted on 284 healthy individuals with an age range between 18 and 84 years (mean of 46.5 years). 2. It is displayed as a false color scale with the thickness values referenced to a normative database. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), first described in 1991, is a noncontact, noninvasive imaging technique that can reveal layers of the retina by looking at the interference patterns of reflected laser light.Automated software segmentation algorithms are able to outline the retinal nerve fiber layer with much precision, which is relevant in glaucoma since this layer is thinned as ganglion cells are lost. As previously stated, SD-OCT measurements are compared against an age-matched normative database. The best quality scans have signal strength greater than 8 (minimum acceptable scan > 6). When used as an ancillary diagnostic test in patients suspected of having glaucoma, OCT imaging aims to provide information that can assist clinicians in deciding whether an eye has glaucomatous damage, which can then be used for management decisions. [5], Similarly, GCA parameters have been found to be comparable to ONH and RNFL parameters. Thinning of the optic nerve indicates that it is being damaged by elevated intraocular pressure. While different instruments analyze and present the data differently, there are two basic types of analysis: event analysis (EA) and trend analysis (TA). Ophthalmology 2014;121:7:1322-1332. Optovue’s Ganglion Cell Complex (GCC) chose to include RNFL in their combined GCL and IPL layers. Grewal DS, Tanna AP. Effect of cataract and its removal on signal strength and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer optical coherence tomography measurements. A comprehensive glaucoma screening will involve several tests. “Using spectral domain OCT is not a sufficient stand-alone test for the detection of glaucoma or for triage use in primary care, but it has value in conjunction with clinical examination and perimetry,” she said. Uses in the Retina Practice “OCT has really made a big change in how retina specialists think about their patients,” said Dr. Ip. Visual Field Testing for Glaucoma. These ONH parameters were found to be as good as RNFL thickness parameters in diagnosing glaucoma. When using the average RNFL thickness at the 5% level compared to the normative database (yellow coloring on RNFL deviation map), SD-OCT had a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 88% compared to 80% and 94% respectively for TD-OCT. Tonometry tests the pressure of the inner eye. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2010;41:S15-27. OCT scans are recommended for people aged 25 or over, who want to know more about their eye health, or those who have diabetes, glaucoma, or have family history of eye disease. OCT testing is like having an optical biopsy of the retina and optic nerve; it provides excellent visualization of these structures, and aids greatly in the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. You have a family history of glaucoma. OCT testing requires dilation of the pupils but does not require a needle in the arm and does not involve touching the eye. In Ontario OCT testing is now covered by OHIP. For more information, call the toll-free number 866-450-6782 or e-mail aigs@usc.edu.) Carl Zeiss Meditec “Cirrus HD-OCT 5000 and 500: Technical Specifications” (, International Ophthalmologists contest rules, http://applications.zeiss.com/C1257A290053AE30/0/4BEACDCC7BCD1769C1257B6000392EB0/$FILE/CIRRUS_5000_Tech_Spec_CIR.4769.pdf, https://eyewiki.org/w/index.php?title=Spectral_Domain_Optical_Coherence_Tomography_in_Glaucoma&oldid=54495. Additionally, even in normal eyes, split RNFL bundles, both superiorly and inferiorly, have been found on histologic section, thus representing a true normal variant which may appear abnormal on SD-OCT (see figure 7). When OCT test results show that the optic nerve is thinning, this is a symptom of glaucoma. Special images (OCT) of the nerve that form the optic nerve can give clues to presence of glaucoma. You’re Hispanic and age 65 or older. Leung CK, Yu M, Weinreb RN, et al. Studies have evaluated the reproducibility and repeatability of SD-OCT measures relevant to assessing change over time. Furthermore, a good set of color optic nerve photographs will be forever useful even as technology advances. Effect of laser in situ keratomileusis and laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. All Rights Reserved. It is well known that significant structural RNFL loss occurs prior to the development of functional visual field loss. Sharma N, Sony P, Gupta A, et al. [7] In such preperimetric disease, SD-OCT RNFL is especially useful in helping to diagnose glaucoma prior to the onset of visual field loss. OCT This state-of-the-art instrument is used to analyze the anatomic structure of the optic nerve head, or disc, and the retina. [15] Similarly, a 9.3% increase in mean average RNFL thickness was seen after cataract surgery in a study of 45 patients. Glaucoma progression software incorporates statistical analysis of sequential OCT scans to detect progressive changes. 2009;116:1960–1970. Perhaps the most important tool used to assess optic nerve function, determine whether glaucoma is present, and the status of glaucoma is the visual field test. However, refractive error independent of axial length has not been found to affect RNFL thickness measurements as long as a well focused fundus image is obtained during scan acquisition by utilizing the Cirrus SD-OCT internal fixation focus adjustment. Following are six te… Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012;53:7194-7200. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011;52:3338-3344. Not every patient needs an OCT test. The parameters found to be most diagnostically useful are minimum, inferotemporal sector, average, superotemporal sector, and inferior sector ganglion cell complex thickness.[6]. OCT may detect glaucoma earlier than any other test. As mentioned previously, high myopes were not included in the normative database. Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: a prospective analysis of age-related loss. Perimetry is a visual field test that produces a map of your complete field of vision. Lines should not come together (go to zero). Spectral domain optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma. Chang RT, Knight OJ, Feuer WJ, Budenz DL. Assessment of artifacts and reproducibility across spectral- and time-domain optical coherence tomography devices. Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma. The influence of axial length on retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and optic-disc size measurements by spectral-domain OCT. Br J Ophthalmol 2012;96:57-61. SD-OCT is a powerful objective structural assessment tool that can greatly assist clinicians in diagnosing and managing glaucoma (especially early disease), when used in conjunction with visual field testing and serial clinical exams. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technology used to obtain high-resolution cross-sectional images of the retina. 4. When using the average RNFL thickness at the 1% level (red coloring on RNFL deviation map), the specificity for both SD-OCT and TD-OCT was 100% but the sensitivity was only 65% in SD-OCT and 61% in TD-OCT.[4], ONH parameters have also been found to have excellent ability to discriminate between normal eyes and eyes with even mild glaucoma. An OCT test is taken at the patient’s initial exam and then every 6 to 12 months after. A visual field test maps out what your world looks like to you. The current role of imaging in the diagnosis of glaucoma is unclear but of great clinical importance, said Dr Janulevičienė. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2013;24:150-161. OCT testing is like having an optical biopsy of the retina and optic nerve; it provides excellent visualization of these structures, and aids greatly in the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma and of retinal disorders like AMD. Glaucoma progression algorithms can be divided into event-based and trend-based approaches, similar to visual field progression detection methods. [13], When assessing the adequacy of a scan, the signal strength should always be noted. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) represents arguably the most significant clinically validated advancement in diagnostic technology that the eye care community has seen for … Studies have found a decreased incidence of such segmentation errors in SD-OCT compared to TD-OCT.[18], Axial length has been shown to influence SD-OCT measurements of both RNFL thickness and ONH parameters due to axial-length induced ocular magnification. This test helps your doctor detect and monitor glaucoma. OCT is similar to ultrasound testing, except that imaging is performed by measuring light rather than sound. Mwanza JC, Oakley JD, Budenz DL, Anderson DR. Ability of Cirrus HD-OCT Optic Nerve Head Parameters to Discriminate Normal from Glaucomatous Eyes. Ophthalmology 2012;119:1858-1866. Ophthalmology 2012;119:1151-1158. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a retinal scan used to study the anatomy of the retina and optic nerve in fine detail. J Glaucoma 2011;20:37-43. Balasubramanian M, Bowd C, Vizzeri G, et al. The parameters found to have the greatest diagnostic capability are vertical rim thickness, rim area, and vertical cup to disc ratio. EA compares a single follow-up test to baseline test(s). Kaliner E, Cohen MJ, Miron H, et al. One layer converts light into nerve signals, another processes the nerve impulses, while another transmits these processed impulses to the brain where they are interpreted. Codes for staging glaucoma include 365.71 (mild glaucoma), 365.72 (moderate-stage glaucoma) and 365.73 (severe glaucoma). It will provide a brief review of all modalities, but focus primarily on the Cirrus machine. Regular eye exams, including specific diagnostic tests, are important for early detection of glaucoma. It is used to measure the retinal nerve fibre layers (RNFL) around the optic nerve which is an important marker of early to moderate glaucoma damage. Both OCT and GDx are available at Glaucoma Associates of Texas. OCT became widely popular in 2002 with the release of Stratus OCT, a time-domain technology (TD-OCT) that was well-studied and validated for use in glaucoma and retina and went on to become a standard structural imaging test. Perimetry is a visual field test which examines the entire field of vision. There are three main parameters relevant to the detection of glaucomatous loss: retinal nerve fiber layer, optic nerve head, and the “ganglion cell complex.” The numeric values for all parameters are shaded as white, green, yellow, or red, with the yellow and red representing, < 5% and < 1%, respectively compared to the normative database. JAMA ophthalmology 2015;133:9:1045-1052. Even if your vision and eye health are perfectly fine, we still recommend an OCT scan with every eye test. Retinal nerve fiber layer imaging with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography: patterns of retinal nerve fiber layer progression. Although OCT analyses of macular and optic nerve neuroretinal rim thickness have become increasingly popular in recent years, RNFL analysis has been the benchmark of OCT imaging in glaucoma since its inception.2 RNFL analysis provides an alternative to the visual inspection of the optic nerve neuroretinal rim as well as a quantitative estimation of retinal ganglion cell axonal loss. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), first described in 1991, is a noncontact, noninvasive imaging technique that can reveal layers of the retina by looking at the interference patterns of reflected laser light. J Ophthalmol Vis Res 2010;5:151-157. Reproducibility of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic nerve head parameters measured with cirrus HD-OCT in glaucomatous eyes. These segmentation errors are more common in the presence of poor signal strength, tilted discs, staphylomas, large peripapillary atrophy, epiretinal membranes, and posterior vitreous detachments. The Cirrus macular scan map (see figure 3) is displayed using a similar color scale and divided into various pie sectors around the fovea. Effect of media opacity on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements by optical coherence tomography. [1] Automated software segmentation algorithms are able to outline the retinal nerve fiber layer with much precision, which is relevant in glaucoma since this layer is thinned as ganglion cells are lost. With increasing myopia, the superotemporal and inferotemporal RNFL bundles tend to converge temporally. For glaucoma OCT assesses the nerve fibre layer around the optic nerve and ganglion cell density in the macula. Ophthalmology 2011;118:241-248. (The AIG Study is recruiting normal, glaucoma suspect and glaucoma subjects in Los Angeles, Pittsburgh, Palm Beach and Cleveland. Ophthalmology. An OCT scan is an important test in diagnosing and monitoring glaucoma. Ultrahigh speed swept source OCT, ultrahigh resolution OCT, polarization sensitive OCT, and adaptive optics OCT are all on the horizon. A complete eye exam includes a check for glaucoma. Additionally, myopic eyes can have unique distributions of RNFL bundles. J Cataract Refract Surg 2006;32:446-450. Hood D, Kardon R. A framework for comparing structural and functional measurements of glaucomatous damage. Lee DW, Kim JM, Park KH. [16], It is important to look at the segmentation lines produced by any SD-OCT machine’s software algorithm to ensure that they are appropriately placed. The entire field of vision and ganglion cell analysis complicated by the presence of glaucoma is worsening time... Should not come together ( go to zero ) of all modalities, but focus primarily on the Cirrus.... The difference between baseline and a subsequent exam exceeds a pre-established threshold for change from baseline results show that optic. 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