This website is the digital version of the 2014 National Climate Assessment, produced in collaboration with the U.S. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 153, 1-15, doi:10.1016/j.agee.2012.02.019. 13: Managing carbon: Ecological limits and constraints, Jones, C. Adaire, C. J. Nickerson, and P. W. Heisey, New uses of old tools? A. Dewitz, C. G. Homer, Y. Limin, C. A. Barnes, N. D. Herold, and J. D. Wickham, Completion of the 2006 national land cover database for the conterminous United States, Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Hammer, R. B., S. I. Stewart, and V. C. Radeloff, Demographic trends, the wildland–urban interface, and wildfire management, Modeling the atmospheric response to irrigation in the Great Plains. 6: Agriculture). Science, 309, 570-574, doi:10.1126/science.1111772. A recent study by the EPA14 provides relevant projections of housing density and impervious surface under alternative scenarios of climate change. | Detail ↩, Bonan, G. B., 2001: Observational evidence for reduction of daily maximum temperature by croplands in the Midwest United States. Urbanization is having significant local impacts on weather and climate. In terms of land area, the U.S. remains a predominantly rural country, especially as its population increasingly gravitates towards urban areas. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect how vulnerable or resilient human communities and ecosystems are to the effects of climate change. GLP Transition Team. | Detail ↩, Bierwagen, B. G., D. M. Theobald, C. R. Pyke, A. Choate, P. Groth, J. V. Thomas, and P. Morefield, 2010: National housing and impervious surface scenarios for integrated climate impact assessments. Gutman, Garik, Anthony C. Janetos, Christopher O. The evidence base for this key message includes scientific studies on the carbon cycle at both global and local scales (summarized in Izzauralde et al. URL Carbon storage in urban areas can reach densities as high as those found in tropical forests, with most of that carbon found in soils, but also in vegetation, landfills, and the structures and contents of buildings.59 Urban and suburban areas tend to be net sources of carbon to the atmosphere, whereas exurban and rural areas tend to be net sinks.60 Effects of urban development patterns on carbon storage and emissions due to land and fossil fuel use are topics of current research and can be affected by land-use planning choices. Turner, et al. Lack of parks, green spaces, and trees causes heat island effect . Land-Use and Land-Cover Change: Science/Research Plan. | Detail ↩, Stephens, S. L., M. A. Adams, J. Handmer, F. R. Kearns, B. Leicester, J. Leonard, and M. A. Moritz, 2009: Urban–wildland fires: How California and other regions of the US can learn from Australia. This video takes an in depth look into the five themes of geography. Explain the ways human geographers analyze population change. 200919). Regional weather models are increasingly incorporating land surface characteristics. answer. 38, Homer, C., J. Dewitz, J. Fry, M. Coan, N. Hossain, C. Larson, N. Herold, A. McKerrow, J. N. VanDriel, and J. Wickham, Completion of the 2001 national land cover database for the conterminous United States, Ch. URL Lily Taylor. A recent USGS report suggests that from 2001 to 2005 in the Great Plains between 22 to 106 million metric tons of carbon were stored in the biosphere due to changes in land use and climate. Here is the Advanced Placement Human Geography Unit1 Powerpoint I will be using to teach my classes this year. | Detail ↩, ,, 2010: Climate Leadership Academy: Promising Practices in Adaptation & Resilience, A Resource Guide for Local Leaders, Version 1.0. Both observational and modeling studies show that introduction of irrigated agriculture can alter regional precipitation. URL In terms of area, the Northwest has the smallest projected increase in urban area (approximately 4.2 million acres) and the Southeast the largest (approximately 27.5 million acres).13. question. | Detail ↩, Cambardella, C. A., and J. L. Hatfield, 2013: Ch. Land-cover change and management accounts for about one-third of all carbon released into the atmosphere by people globally since 1850. URL Shapes of Countries By Maggie Habershaw and Allison Higgins 2. | Detail ↩, Brown, D. G., K. M. Johnson, T. R. Loveland, and D. M. Theobald, 2005: Rural land-use trends in the conterminous United States, 1950-2000. Though humans have been modifying land to … Land use change may affect land cover, while changing land cover may similarly affect land use. Extensive literature – as well as textbooks – documents this understanding, as do models of land surface processes and properties. By contrast, the key messages of this chapter are national in scope and synthesize the findings of other chapters regarding land cover and land use. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 50, 1129-1144, doi:10.1175/2010JAMC1836.1. Increases in low-density exurban areas will result in a greater area affected by development and are expected to increase commuting times and infrastructure costs. For example, New Orleans has, through a collection of private and public initiatives, rebuilt some of the neighborhoods damaged by Hurricane Katrina with housing elevated six feet or even higher above the ground and with roofs specially designed to facilitate evacuation.45 San Francisco has produced a land-use plan to reduce impacts from a rising San Francisco Bay.46 A similar concern has prompted collective action in four Miami-area counties and an array of San Diego jurisdictions, to name just two locales, to shape future land uses to comply with regulations linked to sea level rise projections.45,47 Chicago has produced a plan for limiting the number of casualties, especially among the elderly and homeless, during heat waves (Ch. URL Global Change Research Program Land use (such as agriculture, pasture, or plantation) describes human use of land, while land cover (such as forest or desert) describes the biophysical characteristics of the land surface. Since 1973, satellite data show that the overall rate of land-cover changes nationally has averaged about 0.33% per year. | Detail ↩, Lubowski, R. N., A. J. Plantinga, and R. N. Stavins, 2008: What drives land-use change in the United States? Greenhouse gas mitigation with agriculture sector policies. The authors selected key messages based on the consequences and likelihood of impacts, the implied vulnerability, and available evidence. Turner, B. L., II, Eric F. Lambin, and Anette Reenberg. | Detail ↩, ,, 2012: 2010 Census Urban and Rural Classification and Urban Area Criteria. AP® Human Geography. Geist, Helmut J., and Eric F. Lambin. Society & Natural Resources, 22, 777-782, doi:10.1080/08941920802714042. There is little uncertainty behind the premise that specific land uses affect the carbon cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104, 13582-13587, doi:10.1073/pnas.0700144104. A. Patz, C. I. Prentice, N. Ramankutty, and P. K. Snyder, 2005: Global Consequences of Land Use. A team of more than 300 experts guided by a 60-member Federal Advisory Committee produced the report, which was extensively reviewed by the public and experts, including federal agencies and a panel of the National Academy of Sciences. Additionally, as crops are increasingly used to make fuel, the potential for reducing net carbon emissions through replacement of fossil fuels represents a possible land-based carbon emissions reduction strategy, albeit one that is complicated by many natural and economic interactions that will determine the ultimate effect of these strategies on emissions (Ch. Churkina, G., D. G. Brown, and G. Keoleian, Carbon stored in human settlements: The conterminous United States, Chicago Green Homes Program: City of Chicago, City of Homer Climate Action Plan: Reducing the Threat of Global Climate Change Through Government and Community Efforts, DeAngelis, A., F. Dominguez, Y. More than twice as much land globally (over 30 million square kilometers) is in use as pasture and grasslands relative to agricultural land. . Enfield, NH: Science Publishers, 2001. The majority of the latter is cultivated in crops to feed livestock or to fuel engines rather than to feed humans. c Miscellaneous uses represent unclassified uses such as marshes, swamps, bare rock, deserts, and tundra plus other uses not estimated, classified, or inventoried. Changes in Land Use and Land Cover: A Global Perspective. Brown, Robinson, D.T., French, N.H., and Reed, B.C., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 403-430. These changes may be either encouraged or mandated by government (whether at federal or other levels), or undertaken by private initiative. Between 1973 and 2000, 8.6% of the area of the lower 48 states experienced land-cover change, an area roughly equivalent to the combined land area of California and Oregon.10. | Detail ↩, ,, 2011: Living with a Rising Bay: Vulnerability and Adaptation in San Francisco Bay and on its Shoreline. Dikes and dams were built to keep water from these areas, now used for farming and other purposes. | Detail ↩, Hammer, R. B., S. I. Stewart, and V. C. Radeloff, 2009: Demographic trends, the wildland–urban interface, and wildfire management. For example, irrigation in California has been found to reduce daily maximum temperatures by up to 9°F. 3.4) and the types of additional management activities considered (Sect. 2013; Hurteau 2013; and Cambardella and Hatfield 2013).49,50,51 The evidence base also includes policy studies on the costs and benefits and feasibilities of various actions to reduce carbon emissions from land-based activities and/or to increase carbon storage in the biosphere through land-based activities (summarized in Jones et al. Texas A&M University at Galveston, Thomas R. Loveland, The three tutorial chapters on LUCC data analysis and modeling tools are helpful to researchers interested in technical details. CBD ap human geography, what is it about? ), disagreement or lack of opinions among experts. URL The number of buildings lost in the 25 most destructive fires in California history increased significantly in the 1990s and 2000s compared to the previous three decades.19 These losses are one example of how changing development patterns can interact with a changing climate to create dramatic new risks. Lambin and Geist introduce the report by arguing that the community is approaching an “overarching theory” of LUCC. ), Despite these rapid changes in developed land covers, the vast size of the country means that total land-cover changes in the U.S. may appear deceptively modest. General Technical Report SRS-141. Land­use and land­cover change (LULCC); also known as land change) is a general term for the human modification of Earth's terrestrial surface. This report documents the results of the LUCC project carried out jointly by the IGBP and IHDP. Yet this small rate of change has produced a large cumulative impact. Dams can change a natural landscape by flooding it. | Detail ↩, Sorooshian, S., J. Li, K. Hsu, and X. Gao, 2011: How significant is the impact of irrigation on the local hydroclimate in California’s Central Valley? Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on | Detail ↩, McPherson, R. A., D. J. Stensrud, and K. C. Crawford, 2004: The impact of Oklahoma’s winter wheat belt on the mesoscale environment. Mixed-use zoning is at the heart of the New Urbanism movement. The California Geographer, 48, 27-59. A. Patz, C. I. Prentice, N. Ramankutty, and P. K. Snyder, Fry, J. Also, we do not yet know how natural processes might alter the amount of carbon storage expected to occur with management actions. Taylor & Francis Series in Remote Sensing Applications. Choices about land-use and land-cover patterns have affected and will continue to affect our vulnerability to the effects of climate change. 4). Therefore, without some institutional intervention (such as incentives or penalties), the motivations for such decisions can be weak. Decisions about land-use and land-cover change by individual landowners and land managers are influenced by demographic and economic trends and social preferences, which unfold at global, national, regional, and local scales. “Proximate Causes and Underlying Driving Forces of Tropical Deforestation.” BioScience 52.2 (2002): 143–150.   a Differences in the way certain categories are defined, such as the special uses distinction in the USDA Economic Research Service land use estimates, make direct comparisons between land use and land cover challenging. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 77, 858-864. A must-read for anyone working in LUCC research. For the official version, please refer to the PDF in the downloads section. Turner, B. L., II, David Skole, Steven Sanderson, Günther Fischer, Louise Fresco, and Rik Leemans. This project defined LUCC research for much of the next decade and culminated in a pivotal 2006 report (Lambin and Geist 2006). | Detail ↩, Berke, P. R., D. R. Godschalk, E. J. Kaiser, and D. A. Rodriguez, 2006: Urban Land Use Planning. The research plans of the joint projects of the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) and International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP) have greatly influenced LUCC research since the early 1990s. Population Division Working Paper No. Global warming - Global warming - Land-use change: There are a number of ways in which changes in land use can influence climate. 201215). mixed economy definition ap human geography. 28 pp., U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA. URL Monthly Weather Review, 136, 1554-1561, doi:10.1175/2007MWR2040.1. Papers presented at the 1991 OEIS Global Change Institute conference, held in Snowmass Village, CO. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Global Land Project: Science Plan and Implementation Strategy. | Detail ↩, Karl, T. R., B. E. Gleason, M. J. Menne, J. R. McMahon, R. R. Heim, Jr., M. J. | Detail ↩, Wear, D. N., 2011: Forecasts of County-Level Land Uses under Three Future Scenarios: A Technical Document Supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA Assessment. 13: Managing carbon: Ecological limits and constraints. Report prepared for 2013 National Climate Assessment. Percentage change in land-cover type between 1973 and 2000 for the contiguous U.S. National Climate Assessment regions. While there is little uncertainty about the general applicability of this key message, the actual character and consequences of climate change as well as its interactions with land cover and land use vary significantly between locations and circumstances. | Detail ↩, Sohl, T. L., B. M. Sleeter, K. L. Sayler, M. A. Bouchard, R. R. Reker, S. L. Bennett, R. R. Sleeter, R. L. Kanengieter, and Z. Zhu, 2012: Spatially explicit land-use and land-cover scenarios for the Great Plains of the United States. Field, K. N. Cahill, and C. Bonfils, 2006: Impacts of future climate change on California perennial crop yields: Model projections with climate and crop uncertainties. Science, 310, 1625-1626, doi:10.1126/science.1120529. Two edited volumes, Singh, et al. Very High. A decision to include culverts underneath a coastal roadway may facilitate migration of a salt marsh inland as sea level rises. A., R. DeFries, G. P. Asner, C. Barford, G. Bonan, S. R. Carpenter, S. F. Chapin, III, M. T. Coe, G. C. Daily, H. K. Gibbs, J. H. Helkowski, T. Holloway, E. A. Howard, C. J. Kucharik, C. Monfreda, J. Impervious surfaces have a wide range of environmental impacts and thus represent a key means by which developed lands modify the movement of water, energy, and living things. These figures do not indicate the total amount of changes that have occurred, for example when increases in forest cover were offset by decreases in forest cover, and when cropland taken out of production was offset by other land being put into agricultural production. 2: Our Changing Climate; Ch. Overall, setting aside emissions due to burning fossil fuels, in the U.S. and the rest of North America, land cover takes up more carbon than it releases. In particular, low-density housing developments (suburban and exurban areas), which are not well-represented in commonly used satellite measurements, have rapidly expanded throughout the U.S. over the last 60 years or so.7,8,9 Based on Census data, areas settled at suburban and exurban densities (1 house per 1 to 40 acres on average) cover more than 15 times the land area settled at urban densities (1 house per acre or less) and covered five times more land area in 2000 than in 1950.7, Figure 13.1: Impact on land because low-density development occupies more land than a high -density development (more land used for roads, larger building footprints) C5. A., G. Xian, S. Jin, J. Choices about land use and land management may provide a means of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gas levels. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 41, 689-701, doi:10.1175/1520-0450(2002)0412.0.CO;2. | Detail ↩, Shepherd, J. M., H. Pierce, and A. J. Negri, 2002: Rainfall modification by major urban areas: Observations from spaceborne rain radar on the TRMM satellite. Land Use and the Carbon Cycle: Advances in Integrated Science, Management and Policy, D.G. In their introduction to the report, Lambin, Geist, and Ronald Rindfuss argue that researchers are approaching an “overarching theory” of LUCC “that explain[s] change in the behavior of people as well as land-cover/use change” (p. 7). Professional Paper 1787. Describe the relationship between population growth, population density and These projects can help your students experiment with these ideas in unique and creative ways. a Land in an altered and often un-vegetated state that, because of disturbances by mechanical means, is in transition from one cover type to another. 107 pp., Institute for Sustainable Communities, Vermont. Urban and Rural Population: 1900 to 1990. A discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in … Some of the projected changes in developed areas will depend on assumptions about changes in household size and how concentrated urban development will be. Map shows regional differences in land cover. Foster, 2008: Increase in near-surface atmospheric moisture content due to land use changes: Evidence from the observed dew point temperature data. b Land in an altered and often un-vegetated state that because of disturbances by non-mechanical means is in transition from one cover type to another. Based on discussions with National Climate Assessment (NCA) leadership and other chapter authors, the Land Use and Land Cover Change authors identified and reached consensus on a final set of four key messages and organized most of the chapter to directly address these messages. This book presents the state of the art, and new frontiers, in methods and techniques in LUCC characterization, mapping, and monitoring using remote-sensing technology, with empirical examples at multiple scales. Black, A. H. Goldstein, B. E. Law, W. C. Oechel, K. T. Paw, and R. L. Scott, Reduction in carbon uptake during turn of the century drought in western North America, Living with a Rising Bay: Vulnerability and Adaptation in San Francisco Bay and on its Shoreline, Shepherd, J. M., H. Pierce, and A. J. Negri, Rainfall modification by major urban areas: Observations from spaceborne rain radar on the TRMM satellite, Late 20th century land change in the Central California Valley Ecoregion, Sleeter, B. M., T. L. Sohl, T. R. Loveland, R. F. Auch, W. Acevedo, M. A. Drummond, K. L. Sayler, and S. V. Stehman, Land-cover change in the conterminous United States from 1973 to 2000, Sleeter, B. M., T. L. Sohl, M. A. Bouchard, R. R. Reker, C. E. Soulard, W. Acevedo, G. E. Griffith, R. R. Sleeter, R. F. Auch, K. L. Sayler, S. Prisley, and Z. Zhu, Scenarios of land use and land cover change in the conterminous United States: Utilizing the special report on emission scenarios at ecoregional scales, Sohl, T. L., B. M. Sleeter, K. L. Sayler, M. A. Bouchard, R. R. Reker, S. L. Bennett, R. R. Sleeter, R. L. Kanengieter, and Z. Zhu, Spatially explicit land-use and land-cover scenarios for the Great Plains of the United States, U.S. Cities and Climate Change: Urban, Infrastructure, and Vulnerability Issues, Technical Input Report Series, U.S. National Climate Assessment, Sorooshian, S., J. Li, K. Hsu, and X. Gao, How significant is the impact of irrigation on the local hydroclimate in California’s Central Valley? Research on LUCC is essentially of multidisciplinary nature, attracting scientists from a range of fields, including but not limited to economics, sociology, geography, GIScience (geographic information systems [GIS] and remote sensing in particular), and demography. URL AP Human Geography introduces high school students to college-level introductory human geography or cultural geography. Lambin and Geist 2006 is a summary report done at the conclusion of the LUCC project. | Detail ↩, Richter, D., and R. A. Houghton, 2011: Gross CO2 fluxes from land-use change: Implications for reducing global emissions and increasing sinks. Land Use and Cover Change. | Detail ↩, Sleeter, B. M., T. L. Sohl, T. R. Loveland, R. F. Auch, W. Acevedo, M. A. Drummond, K. L. Sayler, and S. V. Stehman, 2013: Land-cover change in the conterminous United States from 1973 to 2000. 2001 and Gutman, et al. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 13, 1667-1686, doi:10.1175/jhm-d-11-098.1. Land-use decisions in urban areas also present carbon reduction options. Greenhouse gas mitigation with agriculture sector policies, Jones, C. Adaire, C. J. Nickerson, and N. Cavallaro, Ch. Global Environmental Change, 22, 896-914, doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.03.008. U.S. Geological Survey, Allison Thomson, This has happened as a result of more efficient forest and agricultural management practices, but it is not clear if this rate of uptake can be increased or if it will persist into the future. | Detail ↩, Harding, K. J., and P. K. Snyder, 2012: Modeling the atmospheric response to irrigation in the Great Plains. Search this site. Numerous roads and parking lots absorb heat and contribute to the heat island effect . | Detail ↩, Hollman, F. W., T. J. Mulder, and J. E. Kallan, 2000: Methodology and Assumptions for Population Projections of the United States: 1999 to 2100. The edited proceedings of the 1991 Global Change Institute meeting (seventeen chapters), this is a good resource for an overview of LUCC research in the early 1990s, prior to the advent of the IGBP/IHDP projects. Land-use and land-cover changes affect climate processes. A number of books also provide overviews of LUCC research. Welcome to my human geography site! Key messages were identified during this period and discussed in two phases, associated with major chapter drafts. A., R. DeFries, G. P. Asner, C. Barford, G. Bonan, S. R. Carpenter, S. F. Chapin, III, M. T. Coe, G. C. Daily, H. K. Gibbs, J. H. Helkowski, T. Holloway, E. A. Howard, C. J. Kucharik, C. Monfreda, J. 14: Effects of wildland fire management on forest carbon stores. While about one-third of exurban areas are covered by impervious surfaces,14 urban or suburban areas are about one-half concrete and asphalt. (See Table 13.2 for definitions of mechanically and non-mechanically disturbed. Land-use and land-cover-related options for mitigating climate change (reducing the speed and amount of climate change) include expanding forests to accelerate removal of carbon from the atmosphere, modifying the way cities are built and organized to reduce energy and motorized transportation demands, and altering agricultural management practices to increase carbon storage in soil. | Detail ↩, Nickerson, C., R. Ebel, A. Borchers, and F. Carriazo, 2011: Major Uses of Land in the United States, 2007. 16: U.S. Policies and greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture. Global Change—the IGBP Series. Notice how they can be approached from different subject areas (they usually cover more than one topic). | Detail ↩, ,, 1995: Table 1. Expand or collapse the "in this article" section, Expand or collapse the "related articles" section, Expand or collapse the "forthcoming articles" section, 10.1641/0006-3568(2002)052[0143:PCAUDF]2.0.CO;2, Geographic Methods: Life Writing Analysis, Geographic Vulnerability to Climate Change, GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in Geomorphology, Indigenous Peoples and the Global Indigenous Movement, Marine Conservation and Fisheries Management, Music, Sound, and Auditory Culture, Geographies of, Photographic and Video Methods in Geography. 7: Forests). Physical Geography, 25, 191-207, doi:10.2747/0272-3646.25.3.191. 15: Soil carbon dynamics in agricultural systems. Land use and cover change (LUCC) is the study of land surface change. Progress in Physical Geography, 30, 270-279, doi:10.1191/0309133306pp484pr. Lambin, Eric F., and Helmut J. Geist, eds. All of these specific mitigation options present implementation challenges, as the decisions must be weighed against competing objectives. 28: Adaptation) of this report; Chapters 26 (Ch. Choices about land use and land management affect the amount of greenhouse gases entering and leaving the atmosphere and, therefore, provide opportunities to reduce climate change (Ch. The National Climate Assessment summarizes the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. For instance, the number of homes constructed in floodplains or the amount of irrigated agriculture can be so deeply rooted that they are difficult to change, no matter how much those practices might impede our ability to respond to climate change. Land Use and the Carbon Cycle: Advances in Integrated Science, Management and Policy, D.G. The downloadable PDF is the official version of the 2014 National Climate Assessment. CBD ap human geography can be used by all, always and without great Trying around carefree used be - due the positive Declaration of Manufacturer also how the Simplicity of the product total. Justice, et al., eds. 2007 discusses the emerging field of “land change science” and its role within the broader field of research on global environmental change, providing an overview of the current state and future directions of LUCC research. Land Use and the Carbon Cycle: Advances in Integrated Science, Management and Policy, D.G. Redlining. This book, a synthesis of a set of NASA-funded projects under the Land-Cover and Land-Use Change Program, brings together detailed case studies, regional analyses, and globally scaled efforts on mapping LUCC and understanding its driving forces and broad consequences. In 1910, only 46% of the U.S. population lived in urban areas, but by 2010 that figure had climbed to more than 81%.4,5 In 2006 (the most recent year for which these data are available), more than 80% of the land cover in the lower 48 states was dominated by shrub/scrub vegetation, grasslands, forests, and agriculture.6,1 Forests and grasslands, which include acreage used for timber production and grazing, account for more than half of all U.S. land use by area (Table 13.1), about 63% of which is in private ownership, though their distribution and ownership patterns vary regionally.2 Agricultural land uses are carried out on 18% of U.S. surface area. , 2005: land use this effect can be approached from different subject areas ( they usually cover than. Maggie Habershaw and Allison Higgins 2 50, 1129-1144, doi:10.1175/2010JAMC1836.1, limited consistency, incomplete! Characterize the nation ’ s land cover, while underlying drivers for understanding tropical,. 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