The first of main floral axis gives rise to two lateral branches and these branches and the succeeding branches bear only one branch each on alternate sides. The main axis of the inflorescence together with the latest axes, if present, is termed as the peduncle. The shape of an inflorescence varies among cereals, ranging from a highly branched panicle in rice to a much more compact spike in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).However, little is known about the molecular basis of cereal inflorescence architecture. Answer Now and help others. Spike: In spike, peduncle is elongated but flowers are sessile. Spikeletes are arranged in a spike inflorescence which is composed of several to many spikelets which are combined in various manners on a main axis called the rachis. Flowers open from the bottom up. In this type of racemose inflorescence the main axis remains elongated and the lower flowers are older, i.e., opening earlier than the upper ones, as found in raceme, but here the flowers are sessile, i.e., without pedicel or stalk, e.g., amaranth (Amaranthus spp. Generally the umbel is branched and is known as umbel of umbels (compound umbel), and the branches bear flowers, e.g., in coriander (Coriandrum sativum), fennel, carrot, etc. INFLORESCENCE-(term) introduced by Linnaeus o Also introduced: "cyme," "raceme," "spike," and "umbel" (types of inflorescence)-(definition) Bentham (1892) o "the arrangement of the flowering branches and the flowers upon them"; o he also applied the term to the flowering branch itself-(definition) Correll and Johnston (1970) o Defined the term inflorescence … The former whorl of bracts is called involucre and the latter involucel. An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. In addition the whole inflorescence remains surrounded by a series of bracts arranged in two or three whorls. inflorescence. The stalk of the individual flower of the inflorescence is called the pedicel. In botany, a spadix (/ ˈ s p eɪ d ɪ k s / SPAY-diks; plural spadices / ˈ s p eɪ d ɪ s iː z / SPAY-dih-seez, / s p eɪ ˈ d aɪ s iː z / spay-DY-seez) is a type of spike inflorescence having small flowers borne on a fleshy stem. The oldest flower is in the centre and ends the main floral axis (peduncle). (iii) With the main axis flattened, i.e., capitulum or head. “Diagrams of inflorescence. Examples: Present in the plants of family Araceae (arums), Musaceae, Palmaceae, In the compound spadix, the main axis is branched and each branch bears sessile flowers. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. This is the typical inflorescence of willow (Salix), cottonwood (Populus), oak (Quercus), alder (Alnus) and birch (Betula). Where are the pollen grains formed in the flower? An inflorescence has the following parts: a)Peduncle: It is the main supporting stalk of the inflorescence.. b)Pedicle: It is the stalk of the individual flowers. All orders are custom made and most ship worldwide … The spike is categorized as a type of racemose inflorescence, where the stalk-less, or sessile, individual flowers develop around a central flower stalk called the rachis. Inflorescence Structure The special nature of the gesneriaceous inflorescence has been recognized only recently. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. The modifications can involve the length and … A single insect may pollinate flowers in a short time without flying from one flower to another. This inflorescence (umbel) is characteristic of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family. Flowers and glumes are arranged on the spikelet in two opposite rows. Here the main axis (peduncle) branches in a corymbose manner and each branch bears flowers arranged in corymbs. The branches of a panicle are often racemes. Name the types of nitrogenous bases present in the RNA. The inflorescence is defined as the arrangement of a cluster of flowers on a floral axis. Share Your Word File The typical examples are found in Poaceae (Gramineae) family such as-wheat, barley, sorghum, oats, etc. A cluster of flowers along a stem. This female flower remains surrounded by a number of male flowers arranged centrifugally. The examples can be seen in poinsettia (Euphorbia), Pedilanthus, etc. (Prunus or cherry) The simplest inflorescence type would thus be … All these species belong to a polyphyletic group of angiosperm families known as the … The inflorescence of a plant is the arrangement of the individual flowers on the stem. An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. They feature full-length prints on a 55" (140cm) square canvas. Typical examples of compound umbel are—Daucus carota (carrot), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), etc. Typical examples, are—Ocimum, Coleus, Mentha, Leucas, etc. A capitulum or head is characteristic of Asteraceae (Compositae) family, e.g., sunflower (Helianthus annuus), marigold (Tagetes indica), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). Let’s learn more about inflorescence and different types of inflorescence. (i) With the main axis elongated, i.e., (a) raceme; (b) spike; (c) spikelets; (d) catkin and (e) spadix. Parts of an Inflorescence. Also known as corymb of corymbs. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge //-->, Sign in|Recent Site Activity|Report Abuse|Print Page|Powered By Google Sites, : Unbranched inflorescence with sessile flowers (no pedicels)Â, Unbranched inflorescence with flowers on pedicelsÂ, Main rachis with branches bearing flowers on pedicelsÂ, : A spike-like inflorescence of unisexual flowers, lacking petals, Typical inflorescence of willow, cottonwood, oak, alder, and birch.Â, This feature has evolved several times, in different groups.Â,  the oldest flower terminates the main axis, and theÂ,  continues branching through axillary buds, have 1-sides branching, forming coiled inflorescenceÂ, e.g. google_color_url="F4782D"; D. Solanaceae. This is a simple polychasium. In a plant, flowers may grow either as a single flower or as a group. Awn. Spikelets: Spikelets are characteristic of the Poaceae family (Graminae, Grass). the inflorescence is a spike (a long unbranched stem with flowers along it that lack stalks) the inflorescence is branched, and the branches do NOT both grow from the same side of the plant AND look like spikes; Inforescence position. The modifications can involve … Compound spike is known as the spike of spikelets. The flowers are unisexual; the female flowers develop at the base of the cavity and the male flowers towards the apical pore. There may be several inflorescences on a single plant. C. Poaceae. Racemose Inflorescence: Inflorescence: Type # 2. In this type of cymose inflorescence the main axis culminates in a flower, and at the same time it again produces a number of lateral flowers around. A spadix inflorescence is a spike on a fleshy stem, shown here with a Flamingo lily A head is a short, dense spike with flowers growing directly on the peduncle, which is … google_color_text="323229"; ), oak (Quercus spp. -a flower head composed of many separate unstalked flowers close together. The floral parts borne in the axil of lemma. Other articles where Spike is discussed: inflorescence: Indeterminate inflorescence. In this plant the heads are small and one-flowered and are arranged together forming a big compound head. google_ad_width=120; Morphologically, it is the part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed and which is accordingly modified. Individual flower units are called Spikelets; The central axis of the inflorescence is … At the same time the peduncle produces two lateral younger flowers or two lateral branches each of which terminates in a flower. This inflorescence type isn't shown on our diagram. There are several types of inflorescences, including spikes, racemes, panicles, catkins, cymes, umbels, corymbs, and composites to name a few. The capitulum (head) may also consist of only one kind of florets, e.g., only tubular florets in Ageratum or only ray or strap-shaped florets in Sonchus. Just above the glumes, there is series of florets, partly enclosed by them. Hypanthodium. A. Cruciferae. Usually, an inflorescence has other parts, such as peduncle, pedicle, and the orchid bloom itself. Lemma is a phytomorphological term referring to a part of the spikelet. The typical example is globe thistle (Echinops). A cluster of flowers within a plant that may contain one to many flowers. Based on this arrangement on plant inflorescence are divided into various types, they are: Spike - In this there is an elongated, unbranched, indeterminate inflorescence with sessile flowers. Inflorescence . The flowers may be pedicellate (stalked) or sessile (without stalk). (With Methods)| Industrial Microbiology, How is Cheese Made Step by Step: Principles, Production and Process, Enzyme Production and Purification: Extraction & Separation Methods | Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation of Olives: Process, Control, Problems, Abnormalities and Developments. the spikelets are mainly carried at the end of the stem; The whole branched structure remains covered by a single spathe. inflorescence synonyms, inflorescence pronunciation, inflorescence translation, English dictionary definition of inflorescence. In this type of inflorescence the peduncle bears a terminal flower and stops growing. The following points highlight the six major types of inflorescence. An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. The lateral and succeeding branches in their turn behave in the same manner, e.g., jasmine, teak, Ixora, Saponaria, etc. It bears sessile or sub-sessile flowers on it. The various forms of racemose inflorescence may be described under three heads. The oldest flowers develop in the centre and youngest towards the periphery of the disc, such arrangement is known as centrifugal. Besides, it is also found in Acacia and sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica) of Mimosaceae family. Types of Inflorescence. Inflorescence is a sequence in which flowers are arranged on the plant or on their stem. The lateral and succeeding branches again produce only one branch at a time like the primary one. The cymose inflorescence may be of four main types: (iii) Multiparous or polychasial cyme and. (ii) Disc florets (central tubular flowers). Spike (Inflorescence) a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch. The flowers make a globose head, which is also called glomerule. The lemma is the lower, outer bract of the floret. In angiosperm: Inflorescences. A3. These clusters facilitate pollination via a prominent visual display and more efficient pollen uptake and deposition. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. A Spike is a group of flowers arising from the main stem, without individual flower stalks (sessile). Spike. Sessile flowers (spikelets) are present on the branched main-axis. Glume. The palea (also known as superior palea) often with two longitudinal ridges (keels or nerves), stands between the lemma and the rachilla. This type of inflorescence is found in genus Euphorbia of family Euphorbiaceae; also found in genus Pedilanthus of the family. Anthesis Foliage, Flowers and Fruit of the Pepper Plant. google_ad_height=600; The modifications can involve the length and the nature of the internodes … Define inflorescence. In this case many small heads form a large head. ), latjira (Achyranthes aspera), etc. HARD. In this inflorescence the primary axis remains comparatively short, and it bears at its tip a group of flowers which possess pedicels or stalks of more or less equal lengths so that the flowers are seen to spread out from a common point. What is the significance of transpiration? This type of inflorescence is known as sympodial cyme as found in some members of Solanaceae (e.g., Solanum nigrum). Spikeletes are characteristic of Poaceae (Gramineae) or Grass family, e.g., grasses, wheat, barley, oats, sorghum, sugarcane, bamboo, etc. Usually a whorl of leafy bracts is found at the base of branches and also at the bases of flowers arranged in umbellate way. The older flowers present at the ... A2. In the former case it becomes a compound raceme and in the latter case it becomes a compound cymose inflorescence. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. The inflorescence is a pendulous spike or catkin that emerges from the stem node opposite to the leaves. A panicle may have determinate or indeterminate growth. What are the general characters of bryophytes? google_color_bg="BFBFBF"; Share Your PPT File. When the main axis of raceme is branched and the lateral branches bear the flowers, the inflorescence is known as compound raceme or panicle, e.g., neem (Azadirachta indica), gul-mohar (Delonix regia), etc. Some authors distinguish it from a compound spike inflorescence, by requiring that the flowers (and fruit) be pedicellate (having a single stem per flower). The main types of compound inflorescence are as follows: In this case the raceme is branched, and the branches bear flowers in a racemose manner, e.g., Delonix regia, Azadirachta indica, Clematis buchaniana, Cassia fistula, etc. Boraginaceae (forget-me-not family) and Hydrophyllaceae (waterleaf family)Â, : All flowers originate from the same point with equal ray and pedicel lengthsÂ, Simple umbel lacks rays: only pedicels and pedunclesÂ, Similar in form to a panicle, but with the lower flowers having longer pedicels, Inflorescence has a flat top superficially resembling an umbel.Â, ). Many species in the Maloideae, such as hawthorns and, Combination of disk flowers and/or ray flowers in these inflorescences, ) is an example with both types of flowers, A thick, fleshy spike of unisexual flowers lacking petals (spadix), o, ften surrounded by a vase-shaped modified leaf called a spathe.Â, : The inflorescence of the talipot palm (, The inflorescence grows over 3m (10 ft ). Here the peduncle (main axis) is short and bears many branches which arise in an umbellate cluster. e.g., Amaranthus … google_color_border="BFBFBF"; There are three flowers; the oldest one is in the centre. This type has already been described under sub-head spikelets. (ii) With the main axis shortened, i.e., (i) corymb and (ii) umbel. The example is Agastache foeniculum. A panicle (see photograph) is a branched raceme in which the branches are themselves racemes (e.g., yuccas, Yucca).In a compound umbel (see photograph), all the umbel inflorescences arise from a common point and appear to be at about the same level (e.g., wild carrot). google_ad_type="text_image"; The examples are common in Palmaceae (Palmae) family. 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Examples are common examples of compound umbel are—Daucus carota ( carrot ), latjira ( Achyranthes aspera ) Coriandrum! Inflorescence required condensation of shoots and the lateral and succeeding branches again produce only one lateral branch a!