They are the most important cultivated yams. Yam is held at the end of the rainy season around August. System which is confirm mostly to the top 30cm of the soil and these in branched root may extend laterally to a considerable distance, later in the development of the plant a mass of finer branching fibrous root is produced. Yam festivals around Ghana The Fofie Yam Festival takes place every October but celebration of this humble vegetable is commonplace across the whole nation. The boiled yam can also be pounded with a traditional mortar and pestle to create a thick, starchy paste known as iyan (pounded yam) or fufu which is eaten with traditional sauces such as egusi and palm nut soup. Another method of consumption is to leave the raw yam pieces to dry in the sun. Yam is a leading agricultural export commodity for Ghana. I love it too. [1], The name "yam" appears to derive from Portuguese inhame or Canarian (Spain) ñame, which derived from West African languages during trade. Severe cases of alkaloid intoxication may prove fatal. This is their way of giving thanks to the spirits above them. It is best taken with hot pepper or boiled beans. Ridged bed types are also good for yam planting. After the bush had been cleared, make hips of loose soil of about one meter in height and one meters apart. Ghana: The Crop Trust supported the Plant Genetic Resources Research Institute (PGRRI) to regenerate and characterize 338 yam accessions with the objective of rescuing threatened diversity and enhancing use of the crops. Aerial or potato yams have antinutritional factors. However, in Colombia, there is no evidence of the use of this product, other than food.[39]. Dioscorea japonica known as East Asian mountain yam, yamaimo, or Japanese mountain yam, is a type of yam (Dioscorea) native to Japan (including Ryukyu and Bonin Islands), Korea, China, Taiwan, and Assam. The yam root was traditionally used by peasants in Vietnam to dye cotton clothes throughout the Red River and Mekong delta regions as late as the mid-20th century, and is still used by others in the Sapa region of northern Vietnam.[40]. The edible tuber has a rough skin that is difficult to peel but readily softened by heating. [1] Even in Africa, the popularity of water yam is second only to white yam. [33] The extracted diosgenin is used for the commercial synthesis of cortisone, pregnenolone, progesterone, and other steroid products. In Asia, detoxification methods, involving water extraction, fermentation, and roasting of the grated tuber, are used for bitter cultivars of this yam. [1] They are native to Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Yamato yam; kanji: 大和芋), depending on the root shape. Z raw plantains Yam is a plant consisting of a corm, from which stem, tuber and root emerge annceally during the growing season yam have a week fibrous root. [22], The world average annual yield of yams was 8.8 tonnes per hectare in 2017, with Ethiopia having the most productive farms of 29.2 tonnes per hectare.[22]. The symptoms of chilling injury are not always obvious when the tubers are still in cold storage. Additionally, the purple yam is a common ingredient of yam ice cream with the signature purple color. Harvesting the tuber then involves the additional step of freeing them from other roots. It is widely harvested and eaten in Southern Zambia where it grows in open forest areas. The wild forms are very toxic and are sometimes used to poison animals when mixed with bait. Sprouting rapidly increases a tuber's respiration rates, and accelerates the rate at which its food value decreases.[24]. Its vines seldom reach more than 3 m (10 ft) in length and the tubers are fairly small in most varieties. The festival is prominent among southeastern states and major tribes in Benue State, mainly around August. Fried yam is a delicacy for many in Ghana. In September, for example, the Volta region holds its own festival to thank God for a bumper harvest and an abundance of yams. A murder suspect, Ayo Lawal, who killed a motorcyclist in Ekiti State has revealed he committed the nefarious crime to raise money to purchase yam tubers for the 2020l2021 planting season. [1], In some places, other (unrelated) root vegetables are sometimes referred to as "yams", including:[1], A monocot related to lilies and grasses, yams are vigorous herbaceous vines providing an edible tuber. Yam generally has a lower glycemic index, about 54% of glucose per 150 gram serving, compared to potato products. The most common cooking methods in Western and Central Africa are by boiling, frying or roasting.[38]. The cost of yam is higher due to the difficulty in farming and relatively low volume of production. The New Yam Festival celebrates the main agricultural crop of the Igbos, Idomas, and Tivs. Harvest season in the Volta Region occurs much earlier than in the Northern Region. Roots and tubers such as yam are living organisms. Research on propagation of this subspecies to alleviate the threat from wild harvest has been successful[20]. It contributes more than 200 calories per person per day for more than 150 million people in West Africa, and is an important source of income. People offer yams to gods and ancestors first, before distributing them to the villagers. [1], Yams of African species must be cooked to be safely eaten, because various natural substances in yams can cause illness if consumed raw. Yams in West Africa are typically harvested by hand using sticks, spades, or diggers. In Colombia yam production has been specifically located in the Caribbean region, where it has become a key product in the diet of the population of this area. The powder is sprinkled onto a pan containing a small amount of boiling water and stirred vigorously. After 7 to 12 months' growth, the tubers are harvested. Yam production is also seasonalplot fallow, with the main harvest season occurring from August to December and a lean crop season occurring from May to July. The king of the Igbo People in Ghana, HRM Eze Dr. Amb. Yams flourish in rainfall of between 1000mm to 1500mm annually, and the best practice is to plant the seedlings at the onset of the rains. White yam tuber is roughly cylindrical in shape, the skin is smooth and brown, and the flesh is usually white and firm. For the sweet potato (, Zulu, D., Ellis, R. and Culham, A. The seed yams are perishable and bulky to transport. The New Yam Festival, known as Orureshi in Owukpa in Idoma west and Ima-Ji, Iri-Ji or Iwa Ji in Igbo land, is a celebration depicting the prominence of yam in social and cultural life. Yam is the name given to several plant species in the genus Dioscorea including Dioscorea alata (white yam), Dioscorea bulbifera (potato yam), Dioscorea cayenensis (yellow yam), Dioscorea esculenta (Asiatic yam) and Dioscorea batatas (Chinese yam) that are grown for their edible tubers. The best temperature to store yams is between 14 and 16 °C (57 and 61 °F), with high-technology-controlled humidity and climatic conditions, after a process of curing. Mountain yam is eaten raw and grated, after only a relatively minimal preparation: the whole tubers are briefly soaked in a vinegar-water solution to neutralize irritant oxalate crystals found in their skin. Yam cultivars are also cultivated in other humid tropical countries.[1]. In fact, exportation of yam is an untapped area in Nigeria’s agricultural sector, leaving Ghana as the major exporter of yam in West Africa. It is not grown much commercially since the flavor of other yams is preferred by most people. J. Ihenetu through a press statement issued on September 8, 2020 in Accra. Nicolson) in Asia", "Storage and Processing of Roots and Tubers in the Tropics", "Collection, Consumption, and Sale of Lusala (, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0014479720000083, "In Zaki Biam, Nigeria's Largest Mono-Product Market", "Yam diseases and it's management in Nigeria", "Glycemic index and glycemic load for 100+ foods", "Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in human nutrition - Nutritive value", "Kwashiorkor (Protein-Calorie Malnutrition)", "Determinants of yam production and profitability in Edo State, Nigeria", "Diosgenin: Recent highlights on pharmacology and analytical methodology", "Yam Consumption Patterns in West Africa", "El cultivo de ñame en el Caribe colombiano", "Roots, tubers, plantains and bananas in human nutrition", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Yam_(vegetable)&oldid=992453094, Short description is different from Wikidata, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from December 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2015, Articles needing additional references from June 2017, All articles needing additional references, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles needing additional references from December 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Source:UN Food & Agriculture Organization, In Africa, South and Southeast Asia as well as the tropical Pacific islands, initial selection of sound and healthy yams, proper curing, if possible combined with fungicide treatment, adequate ventilation to remove the heat generated by respiration of the tubers, regular inspection during storage and removal of rotting tubers and any sprouts that develop, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 10:09. Bitter compounds tend to accumulate in immature tuber tissues of white and yellow yams. The Association’s objectives are to promote the production […] Unlike cassava, most varieties of edible, mature, cultivated yam do not contain toxic compounds. [13], Non-Dioscorea tubers that were historically important in Africa include Plectranthus rotundifolius (the Hausa potato) and Plectranthus esculentus (the Livingstone potato); these two tuber crops have now been largely displaced by the introduction of cassava.[14]. In this regard, he stated that the ministry would continue to promote yam production, as out of over 28 crops being promoted in the … These may be polyphenols or tannin-like compounds. Ghana: The Crop Trust supported the Plant Genetic Resources Research Institute (PGRRI) to regenerate and characterize 338 yam accessions with the objective of rescuing threatened diversity and enhancing use of the crops. Some yams are also invasive plants, often considered a "noxious weed", outside cultivated areas. • Review of Ghana and West Africa yam literature and more general crop protection literature (including past, on-going and planned research projects) • Discussions with key stakeholders in Ghana and elsewhere in West Africa Mr Fowler visited to Ghana and Nigeria in January/February 2000. Storing yam at low temperature reduces the respiration rates. In central parts of India, the yam is prepared by being finely sliced, seasoned with spices, and deep fried. It looks similar to the white yam in outer appearance; its tuber skin is usually a bit firmer and less extensively grooved. Yams flourish in rainfall of between 1000mm to 1500mm annually, and the best practice is to plant the seedlings at the onset of the rains. The Kokoro variety is important in making dried yam chips. [1] It is also grown in Korea and Japan. Yam is a staple food that is high in demand both locally and internationally. According to a news report by NAN, the Minister who was represented by Mrs Karima Babangida, Director of the Federal Department of Agricultural Extension, said that food security was the most important form of guaranteeing the sovereignty of any state.. D raw potato with flesh and skin Skinned and cut frozen yams may also be available from specialty grocers. that they have also been used for criminal purposes. [32], The tubers of certain wild yams, including a variant of 'Kokoro' yam and other species of Dioscorea, such as Dioscorea nipponica, are a source for the extraction of diosgenin, a steroid sapogenin. May have cancer-fighting properties. In Africa, most are pounded into a paste to make the traditional dish of "pounded yam", known as Iyan.[16]. Ghana Yam Benefits. E raw cassava With a Vision of becoming the leading source of premium quality yam products with global penetration and contribution to an improved Ghanaian economy and livelihoods,the Ghana Yam Producers and Exporters Association was incorporated under the Ghana Company’s Code, 1963 Act 179 on the 2nd of June 1987. Although its main use is for food, several studies have shown its usefulness in the pharmaceutical industry and the manufacture of bioplastics. In the southern state of Tamilnadu, the vegetable is a popular accompaniment to rice dishes and fish curry. Yams from Ghana are produced in large quantities and are exported throughout the whole year. [28], The protein content and quality of roots and tubers is lower than other food staples, with the content of yam and potato being around 2% on a fresh-weight basis. The powder can be mixed with boiling water to create a thick starchy paste, a kind of pudding known as amala, which is then eaten with local soups and sauces. [1] The most economically important are discussed below. The main exportable varieties […] D. bulbifera, the air potato, is found in both Africa and Asia, with slight differences between those found in each place. In the past, they were considered as two separate species, but most taxonomists now regard them as the same species. It’s used to treat sex hormone issues. Successful storage of yams requires:[24][25]. Its rapid growth crowds out native vegetation and it is very difficult to remove since it can grow back from the tubers, and new vines can grow from the bulbils even after being cut down or burned.[18]. 147 accessions are safety duplicated in the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA). D. alata, called "white yam",[1] winged yam, water yam, and purple yam (not to be confused with the Okinawan purple "yam", which is a sweet potato), was first cultivated in Southeast Asia. Wild forms of bitter yams (Dioscorea dumetorum) do contain some toxins, such as dihydrodioscorine, that taste bitter, hence are referred to as bitter yam. These characteristics make yam a preferred food and a culturally important food security crop in some sub-Saharan African countries. Countries where exported yam can be sold include the … The cancellation of the 2020 edition of the annual New Yam Festival/IGBO Day in Ghana was announced by HRM Eze Dr. Amb. Also, the bulbils are easy to harvest and cook. You will usually not find too many vendors engaging in the sale of fried yam in the lean season. yam growing regions of Nigeria and Ghana. [2] Although in both languages, this name is commonly referred to the plant taro (Colocasia esculenta) from the genus Colocasia, as opposed to Dioscorea. [citation needed]. In sprouted or cooked form, the relative nutritional and antinutritional contents of each of these staples is remarkably different from that of raw form of these staples. These must be sprouted, or prepared and cooked for human consumption. It is also used as a popular ingredient for ice cream. These are then milled to create a brown powder known in Nigeria as elubo. D. esculenta, the lesser yam, was one of the first yam species cultivated. [21], In 2017, worldwide production of yams was 73.0 million tonnes, led by Nigeria with 66% of the global total (table). Since they originated in tropical rainforest conditions, their growth cycle is less related to seasonal changes than other yams. Harvesting is typically done manually by using farm tools such as hoes to remove the tuber from the ground. With these methods of obtaining seed yam, the Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers. The bitter compounds in yams also known locally as air potato include diosbulbin and possibly saponins, such as diosgenin. Yam crop begins when whole seed tubers or tuber portions are planted into mounds or ridges, at the beginning of the rainy season. Dioscorea hirtiflora subsp. White- and off-white-fleshed yams are cut in cubes, cooked, lightly fermented, and eaten as afternoon snacks. The crop yield depends on how and where the sets are planted, sizes of mounds, interplant spacing, provision of stakes for the resultant plants, yam species, and tuber sizes desired at harvest. This involves mashing the yam and mixing it with coconut milk and sugar. Uhi was brought to Hawaii by the early Polynesian settlers and became a major crop in the 19th century when the tubers were sold to visiting ships as an easily stored food supply for their voyages.[17]. A yam festival is usually held in the beginning of August at the end of the rainy season. Aerial tubers or bulbils are harvested by manual plucking from the vine. [23] Nigeria farmed yams on 5.9 million hectares, 70% of the world land area of 8.6 million hectares devoted to yam farming. Amongst the major roots and tubers, properly stored yam is considered to be the least perishable. [41], Because of their abundance and importance to survival, yams were highly regarded in Jamaican ceremonies and constitute part of many traditional West African ceremonies.[42]. It symbolises the end of harvesting and the beginning of a new season or the next cycle of work. Natural hormones are becoming a popular option. Yam production is also seasonalplot fallow, with the main harvest season occurring from August to December and a lean crop season occurring from May to July. The bitter compounds in these yams are water-soluble alkaloids which, on ingestion, produce severe and distressing symptoms. Keep an eye on the plants and stake the mounds approximately 4 weeks after the vines first emerge. Care must be taken to avoid damage to the tuber, because damaged tubers do not store well and spoil rapidly. Despite the high labor requirements and production costs, consumer demand for yam is high in certain subregions of Africa,[1] making yam cultivation quite profitable to certain farmers. Farmers who do not buy new seed yams usually set aside up to 30% of their harvest for planting the next year. F raw green soybeans In Vietnam, the same purple yam is used for preparing a special type of soup canh khoai mỡ or fatty yam soup. Yams are perennial herbaceous vines cultivated for the consumption of their starchy tubers in many temperate and tropical regions, especially in Africa, South America and the Caribbean, Asia, and Oceania. J. Ihenetu through a press statement issued on September 8, 2020 in Accra. After a planted seed yam has formed roots, vines, and leaves, the same seed yam is carefully detached and replanted in a new mound. Some varieties can be eaten raw, while some require soaking or boiling for detoxification before eating. Fried yam is a delicacy for many in Ghana. The tubers are eaten baked, boiled, or fried much like potatoes. Modification of current tuber harvesting equipment is necessary given yam tuber architecture and its different physical properties. In forested areas, tubers grow in areas where other tree roots are present. Tuber harvesting involves standing, bending, squatting, and sometimes sitting on the ground depending on the size of mound, size of tuber, or depth of tuber penetration. It is also practised in Nigeria by the Igbo community and other West African countries. Harvesting is typically done manually by using farm tools such as hoes to remove the tuber from the ground. This is their way of giving thanks to the spirits above them. The resulting mixture is served with a heated sauce, such as tomato and chili, poured onto it. However, temperatures below 12 °C (54 °F) cause damage through chilling, causing a breakdown of internal tissues, increasing water loss and yam's susceptibility to decay. [34] Such preparations were used in early combined oral contraceptive pills. (2020) Propagation of lusala (Dioscorea hirtiflora), a wild yam, for in situ and ex situ conservation and potential domestication. They are about the size of potatoes (hence the name "air potato"), weighing from 0.5 to 2.0 kg (1 lb 2 oz to 4 lb 7 oz). Some varieties of these tubers can be stored up to six months without refrigeration, which makes them a valuable resource for the yearly period of food scarcity at the beginning of the wet season. A yam festival is usually held in the beginning of August at the end of the rainy season. Following the timely onset of seasonal rains in the south, planting of yams was completed in March, while planting of maize is ongoing and will be completed by the end of April. Peel, dice, season, and then cook your yams in a pan. In Pernambuco state, it is usually boiled and served cut in slices at breakfast, along with cheese spread or molasses. It produces tubers, but the bulbils which grow at the base of its leaves are the more important food product. Yellow yam has yellow flesh, caused by the presence of carotenoids. Dioscorea japonica is used for food. According to a news report by NAN, the Minister who was represented by Mrs Karima Babangida, Director of the Federal Department of Agricultural Extension, said that food security was the most important form of guaranteeing the sovereignty of any state.. The raw vegetable is starchy and bland, mucilaginous when grated, and may be eaten plain as a side dish, or added to noodles. Faced with serious seed yam shortages, some farmers in Southern Kaduna, Nigeria, plant the same sett twice. Yams are particularly consumed in the coastal area of the Northeast region, although they can be found in other parts of the country. Yams are a primary agricultural and culturally important commodity in West Africa,[38] where over 95% of the world's yam crop is harvested. Yam is an attractive crop in poor farms with limited resources. This often causes tuber damage. The easier to store yams are those adapted to arid climate, where they tend to stay in a dormant low-respiration stage much longer than yam breeds adapted to humid tropical lands, where they do not need dormancy. Yam harvesting is labor-intensive and physically demanding. Small-scale farmers in West and Central Africa often intercrop yams with cereals and vegetables. Dioscorea rotundata, the white yam, and D. cayennensis, the yellow yam, are native to Africa. [16], D. dumetorum, the bitter yam, is popular as a vegetable in parts of West Africa, in part because their cultivation requires less labor than other yams. Yams are used in Papua New Guinea, where they are called kaukau. Yam festivals around Ghana The Fofie Yam Festival takes place every October but celebration of this humble vegetable is commonplace across the whole nation. Chukwudi J. Ihenetu has announced the cancellation of COVID-19: Eze Igbo Ghana, Eze Ihenetu cancels Igbo Day/New Yam festival – … White, yellow, and water yams typically produce a single large tuber per year, generally weighing 5 to 10 kg (11 to 22 lb).[13]. B raw unenriched long-grain white rice Over 200 varieties between them are cultivated. [35] The unmodified steroid has estrogenic activity. After a planted seed yam has formed roots, vines, and leaves, the same seed yam is carefully detached and replanted in a new mound. Planting of the rice crop, to be harvested from September, is underway. Historical records in West Africa and of African yams in Europe date back to the 16th century. Yam plant vines are not sturdy and require support in order to produce a large yield. Yams were taken to the Americas through precolonial Portuguese and Spanish on the borders of Brazil and Guyana, followed by a dispersion through the Caribbean.[44]. It is rich in starch, and can be prepared in many ways. It symbolises the end of harvesting and the beginning of a new season or the next cycle of work. The purple yam, D. alata, is also eaten in India, where it is also called the violet yam. An exception to the cooking rule is the mountain yam (Dioscorea polystachya), known as nagaimo and can be further classified into ichōimo (lit. Nigeria is the highest producer of yam in the world while Ghana is the highest exporter of yam in the world. [36], The following table shows the nutrient content of yam and major staple foods in a raw harvested form. [citation needed][26], Raw yam has only moderate nutrient density, with appreciable content (10% or more of the Daily Value, DV) limited to potassium, vitamin B6, manganese, thiamin, dietary fiber, and vitamin C (table). Chukwudi J. Ihenetu has canceled the 2020 edition of the annual New Yam Festival/IGBO Day in Ghana. When dry, the pieces turn a dark brown color. Yam production is characterised by clearing of new areas on yearly basis. The majority of the vegetable is composed of a much softer substance known as the "meat". [1] The plant disperses by seed.[1]. Yam is best planted within the months of February and April when the rainy season is just beginning. Every tribe and region consume yam and they can be used for porridge, boiled, roasted, fried, flour production etc, The flour can be used in baking snacks such as chin chin, meat pie, peanut burger etc. This purple yam is popular as lightly deep-fried tempura, as well as being grilled or boiled. Adding different seasonings to your yam … Just like cassava, yam cultivation in Ghana is mainly done by smallholder farmers using rudimentary hand tools making cultivation and harvesting much more labor intensive. Storage losses for yams are very high in Africa, with insects alone causing over 25% harvest loss within five months. Because of their relative ease of cultivation and their good flavor, they are considered to have a great potential for increased production.[16]. Certain cultivars of yams store better than others. [16], D. trifida, the cush-cush yam, is native to the Guyana region of South America and is the most important cultivated New World yam. It is best taken with hot pepper or boiled beans. After harvesting, yams have a resting period for about three to four months throughout the dry season before they make suitable seeds. [16], In 1905, the air potato was introduced to Florida and has since become an invasive species in much of the state. The Ghana Yam Producers and Exporters Association was incorporated under the Ghana Company’s Code, 1963 Act 179 on the 2nd of June 1987. It is usually steamed and then cooked with spices. Ghana yams are available throughout the year, but the peak period is between August to December. Yams provide several antioxidants that may have anticancer … 147 accessions are safety duplicated in the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA). However, there are exceptions. [43] Bitter yams are not normally eaten except at times of desperation in poor countries and in times of local food scarcity. Harvesting operations of both yams and maize crops are expected to start in August. In 2010, Colombia was among the 12 countries with the highest yam production worldwide, and ranked first in yield of tons per hectare planted. People offer yams to gods and ancestors first, before distributing them to the villagers. Purple yam is also used in other types of traditional wagashi sweets, cakes, and candy. In Indonesia, the same purple yam is used for preparing desserts. Yam from Ghana - Free to use unique search engine of reliable, genuine and verified companies, suppliers, exporters, sellers, manufacturers, factories, traders, tradeleads of products and services from all over the world. It is tolerant to frost and can be grown in much cooler conditions than other yams. Many cultivated species of Dioscorea yams are found throughout the humid tropics. During this transformation of the starch, the dry matter of the tuber is reduced. Add into baked goods. 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