Help support true facts by becoming a member. [citation needed] Grass lawns are an important covering of playing surfaces in many sports, including football (soccer), American football, tennis, golf, cricket, softball and baseball. An agricultural society, 90% of the Maya population were involved in farming. [citation needed] [citation needed] They also provide an important means of erosion control (e.g., along roadsides), especially on sloping land. ... and Southeast Asia, rice is the most suitable crop for production in tropical climates. There are about 12,000 grass species in about 771 genera that are classified into 12 subfamilies. Grasses have stems that are hollow except at the nodes and narrow alternate leaves borne in two ranks. [citation needed]. Grain is the harvested seed of grasses such as wheat, oats, rice, and corn.Other important grains include sorghum, millet, rye, and barley.Around the globe, grains, also called cereals, are the most important staple food. The Poaceae are the world’s single most important source of food. [15][16], Grasses may be annual or perennial herbs,[17]:10 generally with the following characteristics (the image gallery can be used for reference): Buckwheat Goosefoot / Amaranth Family (family: Chenopodiacae / Amaranthaceae) Straw (and sometimes hay) may also be used as bedding for animals. Our Business. The current outbreak is the worst in recent decades. Crops that grow in Asia include rice, wheat, barley and tropical fruits such as litchi and pineapple. Rice, maize, millet, wheat, barley and buckwheat are the major staple food crops. [17]:11, Grass blades grow at the base of the blade and not from elongated stem tips. By far the greater part of Asia remains uncultivated, primarily because climatic and soil conditions are unfavourable. They provide, through direct human consumption, just over one-half (51%) of all dietary energy; rice provides 20%, wheat supplies 20%, maize (corn) 5.5%, and other grains 6%. Humans get an average of 48 percent of their calories, or food energy, from grains. The grass family is one of the most widely distributed and abundant groups of plants on Earth. [7] Grasses are also an important part of the vegetation in many other habitats, including wetlands, forests and tundra. "We usually have food all year round and surplus to sell. [citation needed] Among the world's most prestigious court for grass tennis is Centre Court at Wimbledon, London which hosts the final of the annual Wimbledon Championships in England, one of the four Grand Slam tournaments. King argued that this was the result of more slowly acting surface wash caused by carpets of grass which in turn would have resulted in relatively more soil creep. Southwest Asia crop hearth: Barley, Einkorn wheat, emmer wheat, lentil, oats, rye, bread wheat, broad bean, olive ... it is designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family. In communities with drought problems, watering of lawns may be restricted to certain times of day or days of the week. Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae, which includes about 25 species.Some of these species have grown as cereals for human consumption … The part of the spikelet that bears the florets is called the rachilla. [17]:18–19, Although the C4 species are all in the PACMAD clade (see diagram above), it seems that various forms of C4 have arisen some twenty or more times, in various subfamilies or genera. A spikelet consists of two (or sometimes fewer) bracts at the base, called glumes, followed by one or more florets. This low growth point evolved in response to grazing animals and allows grasses to be grazed or mown regularly without severe damage to the plant.[20]:113–114. In the earliest days nomadic peoples traded over considerable distances, using barter as the medium of exchange. 18. The leaf grows from the base of the blade, an adaptation allowing it to cope with frequent grazing. There are hundreds of different crops grown for food around the world. Traditional Agriculture. Food Price Escalation in South Asia - A Serious and Growing Concern; In 2011, it was estimated biotech crops were grown on 160 million hectares of land - making it … Grasses provide food to many grazing mammals—such as livestock, deer, and elephants—as well as to many species of butterflies and moths. Anthers detached from a meadow foxtail flower, "Grass" redirects here. Depending on location and cultivar, either its stalks, leaves or hypocotyl are eaten and used in cooking. Grasses are unusual in that the meristem is near the bottom of the plant; hence, grasses can quickly recover from cropping at the top. Of all crops grown, 70% are grasses. member of the grass family; can grow 10 feet tall - sugar is collected from the stem. The success of the grasses lies in part in their morphology and growth processes and in part in their physiological diversity. The term is derived from the Ancient Greek πόα (póa, "fodder"). Their economic importance stems from several areas, including food production, industry, and lawns. sugar beets. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [citation needed], Phragmites australis (common reed) is important for thatching and grass roots stabilize the sod of sod houses. Pseudocereals are foods that can be used like grains, but come from plants that aren't related to the Grass Family. A tiller is a leafy shoot other than the first shoot produced from the seed. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a member of the grass family and it is a primary cereal grain that is cultivated throughout the world in regions with temperate climates. The C3 grasses are referred to as "cool-season" grasses, while the C4 plants are considered "warm-season" grasses. Barley was among the first grains to be grown in Eurasia about 10,000 years ago. Of the principal crops cultivated, rice, sugarcane, and, in Central Asia, sugar beets require the most water. The relationships among the three subfamilies Bambusoideae, Oryzoideae and Pooideae in the BOP clade have been resolved: Bambusoideae and Pooideae are more closely related to each other than to Oryzoideae. Agriculture provides most of the world’s food and fabrics. The table on the following pages lists several vegetables, herbs, fruit, cut flowers, bedding plants, cover crops and weeds by plant family. Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family. For other uses, see, Family of flowering plants commonly known as grasses. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboos and the grasses of natural grassland and species cultivated in lawns and pasture. [26] See the full list of Poaceae genera. A grass flower head (meadow foxtail) showing the plain-coloured flowers with large anthers. [17]:13 A floret consists of the flower surrounded by two bracts, one external—the lemma—and one internal—the palea. [28] Cereals constitute the major source of carbohydrates for humans and perhaps the major source of protein, including rice (in southern and eastern Asia), maize (in Central and South America), and wheat and barley (in Europe, northern Asia and the Americas). Grasses have long had significance in human society. Conversely, in the best growing areas an extraordinarily intensive agriculture is practiced, made possible by irrigating the alluvial soils of the great river deltas and valleys. ... popular human snack food but also a major oil crop - … Grasses include some of the most versatile plant life-forms. Lemongrass is a grass used as a culinary herb for its citrus-like flavor and scent. The authors noted that India became separated from Antarctica, and therefore also all other continents, approximately at the beginning of late Aptian, so the presence of grasses in both India and China during the Cretaceous indicates that the ancestor of Indian grasses must have existed before late Aptian. The evolution of large grazing animals in the Cenozoic contributed to the spread of grasses. The C4 grasses have a photosynthetic pathway, linked to specialized Kranz leaf anatomy, which allows for increased water use efficiency, rendering them better adapted to hot, arid environments. Food Mythbusters (United States) – Food Mythbusters is a campaign of the Real Food Media Project that seeks to dispel misconceptions about food production and promote reforms in industrial agriculture, unfair labor practices, and food advertising, among other issues. [6] Some members of the Poaceae are used as building materials (bamboo, thatch, and straw); others can provide a source of biofuel, primarily via the conversion of maize to ethanol. According to Lester Charles King the spread of grasses in the Late Cenozoic would have changed patterns of hillslope evolution favouring slopes that are convex upslope and concave downslope and lacking a free face were common. Nepal is an agricultural country having 66 percent people directly engaged in farming. a form of subsistence agriculture characterized of asia's major population concentrations in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce … Rye is usually used as a livestock feed, but can be used in baking and distilling liquor. This excludes green beans and green peas, which are considered vegetable crops. Most characteristic of developing countries. The Poaceae are the most economically important plant family, providing staple foods from domesticated cereal crops such as maize, wheat, rice, barley, and millet as well as feed for meat-producing animals. [17][18] Grass leaves are nearly always alternate and distichous (in one plane), and have parallel veins. In the Aristida genus for example, one species (A. longifolia) is C3 but the approximately 300 other species are C4. If only large, contiguous areas of grasslands are counted, these biomes cover 31% of the planet's land. With around 780 genera and around 12,000 species,[4] the Poaceae is the fifth-largest plant family, following the Asteraceae, Orchidaceae, Fabaceae and Rubiaceae.[5]. Sustainable Agriculture Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides. The traditional method of irrigation in Asia is by gravity water flow. Commercial agriculture. During pruning, the chopped branches of acacia trees are usually used as manure to fertilise the soil. Most belong to the Plant Division Angiospermae (also known as Anthophyta) which is commonly known as "the flowering plants". Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing crops and raising livestock. The water from upstream storage reservoirs or diversion dams. These three main plants are wheat corn and rice, and are produced in grasslands all over the world. In tennis, grass is grown on very hard-packed soil, and the bounce of a tennis ball may vary depending on the grass's health, how recently it has been mowed, and the wear and tear of recent play. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Paleozoic events in the continental nuclei, Mesozoic events in the continental nuclei, Mesozoic events in the circum-Pacific orogenic belts, Cenozoic events in the Alpide plate boundary zone and in the Arabian and Indian cratons, Cenozoic events in the island arcs and the marginal basins, Prehistoric centres and ancient migrations. Wu, You & Li considered the Barremian origin for grasses to be probable.[1]. [17]:11, Flowers of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in spikelets, each having one or more florets. In the days leading up to the match it is repeatedly mowed and rolled to produce a very hard, flat surface for the ball to bounce off. Perennial cool-season – orchardgrass (cocksfoot. Poaceae, formerly called Gramineae, grass family of monocotyledonous flowering plants, a division of the order Poales. Grass-dominated biomes are called grasslands. [11][12] In 2011, revised dating of the origins of the rice tribe Oryzeae due to findings from the same deposit suggested a date as early as 107 to 129 Mya. As Virginia Jenkins, author of The Lawn, put it quite bluntly, 'Upper middle-class Americans emulated aristocratic society with their own small, semi-rural estates.' For example, members of the Fabaceae (legume family) can be grown to add nitrogen to the soil and many members of the Liliaceae are heavy users of potassium. Grasses are also eaten by omnivorous or even occasionally by primarily carnivorous animals. A grain crop is a grain-producing plant. Celery (Apium graveolens) is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity. Agricultural grasses grown for their edible seeds are called cereals or grains (although the latter term, agriculturally, refers to both cereals and legumes). [citation needed] Marram grass (Ammophila arenaria). This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 17:10. Sugarcane is the major source of sugar production. Grasslands such as savannah and prairie where grasses are dominant are estimated to constitute 40.5% of the land area of the Earth, excluding Greenland and Antarctica. Though they are commonly called "grasses", seagrasses, rushes, and sedges fall outside this family. They are often used in natural landscaping, xeriscaping and slope stabilization in contemporary landscaping, wildlife gardening, and native plant gardening. Without large grazers, fire-cleared areas are quickly colonized by grasses, and with enough rain, tree seedlings. Celery seed is also used as a spice and its extracts have been used in herbal medicine Paul Robbins and Julie T. Sharp, "Producing and Consuming Chemicals: The Moral Economy of the American Lawn", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Cricket pitch § Preparation and maintenance of the playing area, "Dinosaur-associated Poaceae epidermis and phytoliths from the Early Cretaceous of China", "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", "The Linear Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (LAPG) III: a linear sequence of the families in APG III", "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase", "Late Cretaceous origin of the rice tribe provides evidence for early diversification in Poaceae", 10.1130/0016-7606(1953)64[721:COLE]2.0.CO;2, "Pats sign Testaverde; Gillette Stadium's grass field replaced with Field Turf - USATODAY.com", "Cricket pitches Principles and practice of pitch preparation", The Introductory Reader in Human Geography, "Lawn Sprinkling Regulations in Metro Vancouver, BC, Canada", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Poaceae&oldid=993814781, Extant Early Cretaceous first appearances, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles needing additional references from March 2016, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2011, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 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