Even so, ATRs have a lot more deeper roots in a personal’s tribal setting thus making it hard to ease in implementation of other cultural and religious beliefs that are far eliminated from personal traditional beliefs (Johnson, 2004). What exactly are rituals? What population is affected by the problem? In many of the African spiritual traditions it is believed that there is one “God”. Size Defining characteristics Distribution What theory or theories of human behavior are explicit or, more likely, implicit …, Continue reading “Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis Assignment”, Challenges Facing Financial Managers Devlin, A. There have also been constant debates on the existence of religion in Africa before missionaries work in the continent. The mere existence of people like Kwaku Bonsam and websites that offer the West African equivalent of Western zodiac signs shows the ways in which indigenous priests are adapting their centuries-old traditions to the modern world and resisting the grand narrative of Christianity and Islam. Besides all religions have astonishment and orientation to the spirit world. Let’s put these common myths to rest. Little known is the history of indigenous children across the world who were kidnapped, forced into seminaries and taught not only Christianity but also the superiority of Western culture and language in the hopes that they would go ahead as agents of European authority and “civilise” their own people. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/347555444?accountid=1611 In this article, it is clear that antitrust benefits the business when they enhance regulation of free markets. Well, it … It is a true statement of fact … However, this is a wrong ATR connotation because believers have a Supreme Being to whom is given all reverence. That these rituals are done with the main aim of making money should hint at their true capitalist nature. Religious colonialism is the lesser-discussed arm of colonialism itself, but its psychological effects have been as long-lasting. continue to have on the way Africans worship, traditional African religions still claimed the loyalty of majority of the population of sub-Saharan Africa, uncivilised, a necessary evil that had to be dealt with, and an inferior system that had to be done away with, every form of worship in Africa was of the devil, as a way to reinforce the notion that Africans and African civilisations were lesser, human sacrifices were part and parcel of pre-colonial faith systems, Discussions about the modern “innovations” in African cultures and religious practices, a life path reading and to know which Orisha “ruled my head”, Pentecostal priest for soliciting the help of his deities, offer the West African equivalent of Western zodiac signs, Childhood sex education reduces risky sexual behaviour: a Nigerian case study. Many of mythical contention have also been in the effect that European missionaries brought about the knowledge of God to Africa as well as religion. Studies in Comparative Religion, 10(2), Johnson, K. (2004). There are also quite a few irreligious people—agnostics and atheis… This kind of contention strikes off the fact that Africans did not have religious belief and knowledge in God before arrival of European missionaries (Johnson, 2004). These words are still relevant today. Most missionaries strongly believed that they were saving Africans from satanic oppression and ignorance, an idea that most post-colonial Africans have internalised. In a world where everyone is looking to be rich and wealthy, indigenous African spiritualities are not exempt from being corrupted by those who would do anything to get rich. This conception followed the same path that claimed that all ATRs are the same. John Mbiti, a prominent Christian theologian from Kenya who helped debunk entrenched ideas that traditional African religions were primitive, … The ATR ascription as primitive in regards to Western racial pride set their civilized culture while that of Africans was rudimentary and simple because (Africans) had not gotten used to the Western way of life (Awolalu, 1976, p. 6). Proof of this is in the ritual killings that keep on happening in this modern age whether it is 100 graves dug up in Benin Republic or albinos being killed for their body parts in Tanzania. The terms were also largely used in the colonial period. In considering traditional sub-Saharan African religious systems for study, one is confronted not only by the multiplicity of potential Diseases take millions of lives every year in Africa because of a lack … Voodoo Practitioners Make A Pact With The Devil. Additionally, in relevance to Christianity, God is spirit and should as a result be worshipped in truth and spirit. In essence, these were mainly western scholar’s constructs as a derogatory reference to ATR as a representation of the people’s cultural backwardness. Due to the disdain and fear surrounding indigenous faiths, I tell very few Nigerians that I have consulted with a babalawo, a diviner of the Yoruba deity Ifa. As a young boy, Malidoma Somé was abducted by Jesuit missionaries and made to undergo indoctrination into European ways of thought and worship in colonial Burkina Faso. The lengths to which some missionaries went in their bid to “civilise” people they saw as inferior still astonishes. In this regard therefore, Africans worshipping piece of wood will not in any case despair if the wood gets lost based on the fact that wood is just a being’s representation and is served as a solid personification of goddess that is represented in its presence (Awolalu, 1976, p. 8). Each group of individuals as well as tribe had their religious form over time in response to various life experiences and situations. Now this confession is enough to freak out a lot of Nigerians, who absurdly believe that Ifá, a deity of divination would demand a human sacrifice. But to say that the African Traditional Religion is animistic would be incorrect and racial. Their belief in many spirits as revealed by their belief in spirits existence in every object in every object as a result hurls Africans to an abyss of holy aboriginality. If you are looking for affordable, high quality & non-plagiarized papers, click on the BUTTON below to place your ORDER. To get around these restrictions, the slaves started to equate their gods with Catholic saints. Discussions about the modern “innovations” in African cultures and religious practices are almost nonexistent, so most of us never consider that the growth of Pentecostal churches is encouraging witchcraft related fears or that market forces are central to today’s beliefs in witchcraft. Africa is A Country. Africans Speak African. I couldn’t help but compare his very modern and professional service to the recurring stereotype of wild-eyed witch doctors providing consultations in a darkened room that is popular in Nollywood and even Western depictions of any African spiritual system. Take Ghanaian priest and healer Kwaku Bonsam, for instance, the focus of this New York Times article. Some religions (as well as cultures in general) consider various sexual practices taboo. With such uniformed details, therefore, there was wide assumption that all ATRs are primitive and same in their nature. I was curious to get a life path reading and to know which Orisha “ruled my head” after a friend had had a similar reading done. The resulting video (below) was uploaded on Youtube, thus exposing the ways in which indigenous faiths influence the way modern Africans worship. Many of the myths were however driven by superiority complex of the westerners in relevance to what they considered the ‘’burden of the white man’’ to modernize Africans. Poverty is a problem for many African countries, and it will be one … Sunni Muslims make up approximately… This construct is false entirely since Mbiti contends that many people in Africa were already aware of existence of God and referred to him as Ngai, Mungu and Unkulunkulu among others (Johnson, 2004). While there are similarities in the manner and place of worship in reference to Supreme Being and divinities, each ATR within its center had a signature of practice and belief ascribed only by a group of people. As “Amma”, among the Dogon people, or “Oludamare” among the Yoruba. The main areas covered in the test include the history of …, Continue reading “Report on CITI Training Sample Essay”. The rationale is to designate African traditional religion as inferior to Islam and Christianity.  In this case therefore, the argument is that missionaries did not bring God to Africa, instead God brought them to Africans. Mudimbe's Theories on Missionary Discourse in Africa]. Fact: Slavery is older than the … Are our efforts to deal with the problem in accord with research findings? The fact that heathen and paganism refer to people with no religion, and nobody worshipped false gods, strikes off heathen and pagan titles because they believed in Supreme Being and divinities (Awolalu, 1976, p. 7). Lecturer is always on our head but was pleased with my paper. However, what are some of the myths and real practices that have overshadowed the myths? Indigenous faith systems were competition to those missionaries who wanted their religions to be established in Africa, thus they were essentially subjected to a smear campaign. It was not enough to insist that every form of worship in Africa was of the devil, this was tied to African cultures as a way to reinforce the notion that Africans and African civilisations were lesser when compared to that of Europeans. Slavery and World History. 1, Hutchison, 1913, p.xll. Many Western historians and scholars have a result perpetuated many of the ARRs myths. Conflict is a universal phenomenon that is inevitable in human interaction. Many traditional African religions are based on guiding principles that are unfathomable to foreigners, more specifically those with interests such as historians and scholars. Healthcare’s ‘toxic’ working conditions exposed in student’s documentary, Morocco on high Covid-19 alert as football continues, South African universities need to know why students’ suicide risk is so high. It shows that African cultures and customs do belong in this world. To the modern African who distrusts these age-old traditions, indigenous faith systems can be nothing but evil. In nearby Benin Republic, a country where majority of the population hold on to their indigenous faith, Voudou, Aligbonon Akpochihala hosts his own radio show and appears on television to dispel misconceptions about the Voudou faith. Similarly, few Africans had published accurate ATR representation books while the published have not been circulating according to reports by historians and scholars. Here, Jacob K. Olupona, author of African Religions: A Very Short Introduction shares an interesting list of 15 facts on African religions. The traditional African religions or traditional beliefs and practices of African people are a set of highly diverse beliefs that includes various ethnic religions. While idolatry means worshipping false gods or unnatural beings, ATRs worship the objects mainly as symbols and emblems and not as means to themselves. This anima also according to Taylor had the ability to live after death. However, they were generally forbidden from practicing their religion. Since ATRs are culturally dependent, the society played a very crucial role in propagating them. …, Continue reading “Finance: Coursework on Challenges Facing Financial Managers”, SWOT Analysis of Kohl’s Established in 1962, Kohl’s Corporation is an American company, which operates family-oriented department stores. 2 E. B. Idowu, African Traditional Religion, S.C.M., 1973, p.87. Premium Essay Writing Services is the ideal place for homework help or essay writing service. Christianity must recognise and study the theological basis of the traditional African belief in the existence of mystical and mysterious forces. From Nigeria to Kenya, it is disturbing how we have come to accept the intolerant Western views of African indigenous spiritualities, believing that we are saved because we no longer engage in “idol worship”. In keeping up with the generation of Pentecostal pastors in Ghana who use the media to deride Ghanaian traditional religion as devil worship in the continued colonial tradition, Kwaku Bonsam uses similar tactics to strike back. Now a diviner in hisDagara tradition, Somé wrote about the brainwashing he received at the seminary and the difficult journey finding his way back to his people’s traditions in Of Water and the Spirit. The most important thing is that in the new South Africa religion and spirituality are used to create greater understanding and harmony rather than to divide people as was done in the past. Instead, myths are embedded and transmitted in ritual practice. The theory of Taylor further regarded the African religion as quite primitive because ATR faithful believe in presence of spirits in every object. Will Covid-19 vaccines bring life back to normal in 2021? Most of these stores are in the Midwest and West, where the company has a strong presence with expansion plans …, Continue reading “Sample Essay on SWOT Analysis of Kohl’s”, Report on CITI Training Summary Report on CITI Training Course It is always very important that learner evaluate the lessons learnt during a training course. Unlike Western mythology, African myths are not recounted as a single narrative story, nor is there any established corpus of myth. 3 Leo Frobenius, The Voice of Africa, Vol. Lack of proper understanding of the embodiment led to creation of myths plethora in regards to ATRs. Most religions can be descri… Her opinion is backed by Chief Adelekan, a Yoruba diviner who at a talk in the Manchester Museum insisted that human sacrifices have nothing to do with his indigenous worship. We ignore the influences that these systems have had and continue to have on the way Africans worship and conduct their everyday lives. This lack of knowledge as well as understanding of essentials has led to burgeoning of myths on African Traditional Religions (ATR). A 1685 law, for instance, prohibited the practice of African religions, and required all masters to Christianize their slaves within eight days of their arrival in Haiti. Among the many easy writing service providers, we are the most preferred.This is no self-proclamation but a fitting testament from our customers. Religion creates a significant part of African life. Whether it is being wrongly labelled voodoo, juju or witchcraft, indigenous African faith systems tend to be associated with darkness, animal and human sacrifices, violence and general backwardness. There are few religions as globally misunderstood as African traditional religions. wonna thank you, I expected perfection in terms of grammar and I am happy. In a fascinating case, Kwaku Bonsam stormed into a church with a camera close by, to expose a Pentecostal priest for soliciting the help of his deities and keeping an idol on the church environs. If you have travelled overseas from the continent, there is a likelihood that … Kwaku Bonsam regularly uses social media for divination purposes, and he also appears on television talk shows. Myth: Slavery is a product of capitalism. © Copyright 2009-2019. There are numerous different religions practiced in Africa which do not get a lot of attention—just as there are everywhere. In bringing modernization and Christianity to Africa, many westerners had the notion that conversion from ATR would follow similar process as that in western religion. That is why we have freewill, and regardless of whether we choose to acknowledge that a living God exists or not, and regardless of how we choose to worship Him, directly or through deities, we will all be eventually accountable. ATR on the other hand also has divinities that do not match Supreme Being in file and rank. But in people’s minds, this modern practice of ritual killings has been conflated with indigenous faith systems. The word idol is used to describe the object which is an emblem of that which is worshipped by the Africans. In so many indigenous African faiths, spirit possession and trances are a part of worship. Earlier researchers and missionaries portrayed them often as primitive and barbaric and ridiculed them [I give many examples in my book: White Fathers in Colonial Central Africa - a Critical Examination of V.Y. Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural and passed down from one generation to another through folk tales, songs and festivals, include belief in an amount of higher and lower gods, sometimes including a supreme creator or force, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic and traditional African medicine. The different African countries are made up of rural and urban regions. These rituals, otherwise called witchcraft, are said to exist due to the superstitious nature of Africans, which arises from traditional beliefs. 8 Misconceptions of Various Religions. African indigenous spiritualities in the 21st century Traditional African religion is very popular and arrived here with our North and West African ancestors. The online tests conducted during the course were instrumental in the assessment of what was learnt by the trainees. With religion being the sensitive topic that it is, one close to the hearts of many African people, it is not always easy to have a sensible discussion about the problematic ways in which Eurocentric Christianity and Islam reached the African continent. Correcting Misconceptions About African Traditional Religions. Rather than viewing them as the complex systems they are, we have debased them to nothing but a series of sacrifices. The Economy, Monetary Policy, and Monopolies, “Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis Assignment”, “Finance: Coursework on Challenges Facing Financial Managers”, “Sample Essay on SWOT Analysis of Kohl’s”, Sample Sociology Paper on Saving Capitalism, Criminal Justice: Sample Essay on Why Children Join Gangs, Religious Studies on Contribution of Christianity to Western civilization, Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis Assignment, Finance: Coursework on Challenges Facing Financial Managers, Sample Essay on SWOT Analysis of Kohl’s. Africa is a massive continent with diverse religious traditions, to the extent that within the same tradition there have been variations. Polytheism also offers the same rank to all worshipped gods in such a setting. Last week, in a veiled comparison between African traditional religions and Christianity, which is the major religion in Jamaica, some of the key elements of African traditional religions were discussed using Kenya-born Professor John S. Mbiti, a well-known scholar and researcher of African religions, as the main reference. To each his own. Am happy now having completed the very difficult assignment, I appreciate help on the assignment. Once again, thanks a lot, The paper was so involving but am happy it is done. African Traditional Religion is referred to the diverse beliefs that are included in various ethnic regions in Africa.The religion is characterized mainly by: 1.Supreme Being The African societies and ethnic communities believed in a supreme being who had different names for different communities.The people worshiped this God through singing,offering sacrifices,dancing,dedications … However, the words used in ATR reference were not true because Africans were already aware of religion and believed in the Supreme Being. A few months ago at a work meeting, the topic of ritual killings and idol worship came up and a colleague boldly objected to a idea that ritual killings had been traditionally done by Nigerians in pre-colonial times. Headquartered in Menomonee Falls, WI, the chain has over 1,160 stores in 49 states across the US. For those who are open-minded and interested, there are a growing number of priests ordained in their respective spiritualities who are changing the face of indigenous African spiritualities on the continent and in the Diaspora. Sometimes misrepresentation lack understanding of traditional African religious practices a fact that made the historians and scholars to record misleading details on ATR thus, … It is erroneous to assume that it is after Africans migrate to the Diaspora that they …  Western scholars had in many cases referred ATR to as a form of idolatry worshipping only objects including rocks, sun, wood and trees. 1. Commercialized by E.B Taylor, an English anthropologist and propagated by other scholars, the first myth considers ATR as animism. He named himself “Bonsam” which in Twi means “devil” thus knowingly poking fun at the continued demonisation of indigenous faith systems. This explains further why Africans in slavery maintained their traditional religious practices. This policy aids clients to access products cheaply and in the correct quantity. Traditional/Indigenous African religions are the traditional beliefs and practices of African people including the various traditional religions and customs. It was through email that my friend introduced me to him, his service was paid for through his website, and after consulting with Ifá, he sent me my life path reading in pdf format. In line with the thoughts of Taylor, ATR as animism is the fact that Africans are polytheistic. A person therefore had to be born within a people to undertake and comprehend the people’s religious practices. All Right Reserved. For this reason, the disciples of Taylor conclude that African religion is said to be polytheistic, meaning that Africans serve several gods which further puts African religion at the bottom of religious evolution. Few people are aware that Voudou (rather than “voodoo”) is a faith based on harmony with nature, one that expressly forbids the killing of another being, or that most African … Generally, these traditions are oral rather than scriptural, include belief in a supreme creator, belief in spirits, veneration of the dead, use of magic, and traditional medicine. These so-called ritual killings have attained the status of urban legends in countries like Nigeria where the 10% of Nigerians who adhere to traditional beliefs have to keep their faith secret or risk being labelled as enablers of human sacrifice. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religions of the African people. Native American religions, religious beliefs and sacramental practices of the indigenous peoples of North and South America.Until the 1950s it was commonly assumed that the religions of the surviving Native Americans were little more than curious anachronisms, dying remnants of humankind’s childhood.These traditions lacked sacred texts and fixed doctrines or moral codes and were … It is believed that in rituals, people are regularly abducted and killed, their body parts used to create charms or “fetishes” that are said to bring riches to whoever bears them. Among Catholics , sex of any kind is taboo for clergy - priests, nuns, and monks — but not for general believers. The three main religious traditions—African traditional religion, Christianity, and Islam—constitute the triple religious heritage of the African continent. All African Countries Are Poor. Therefore, the ATRs are not certainly idolatrous. Even so, while it can be true that some ATRs make reverence and reference to things, such as belief in sanctity of rivers and trees, it would be right to bundle all ATRs as animistic. Will keep in touch with more assignments, this is Tom again, just wonna say thank you for assistance. The keepers of the age-old traditions are staking their claim for credibility despite the many challenges they face. This lack of knowledge as well as understanding of essentials has led to burgeoning of myths on African Traditional Religions (ATR). By Jacob K. Olupona. The worst thing is that it uses the local people to enforce itself”. 3 And similar to this was the dialogue that took place between Edwin Smith, who had gone out as a missionary to Africa, and Emil Ludwig, an eminent biographer. Back in the 18th century, Haiti was governed by … Africa is ridden with Disease. If you know anything about Islam, you know that there are Shi’a and Sunni Muslims. The myth that Africans in diaspora experienced slavery erased their ATR ties and holds no water to Africans because they continued with their practices through the 19th and 20th century. ATR faithful are also aware of divinities limitations, a fact that is not true of the Supreme God who is not represented by anything and owes his existence to nobody (Awolalu, 1976, p.9). Retrieved from http://organizations.uncfsu.edu/ncrsa/journal/v04/johnson_understanding.htm. She said she recalled when human sacrifices started in Nigeria  – at the time, she was a child growing up in the 1970s. Even so, theologians of African descent including Mbithi shed more light on ATR thus, changing the Western ATR dialogue into a more objective one with relevance to practices, beliefs and purpose in the lives of Africans. This belief has a theological basis. Even so, the construct is false because all ATR belong to a specific group of individuals where all ATRs evolved. The same ATR effect remains solid even in their modern Christian worship (Johnson, 2004). Therefore, the society played a crucial unifying factor to the dreams and beliefs of a person (Johnson, 2004). The animal that Africans worshipped according to Taylor had the ability of leaving one body and taking over other bodies such as men and things. We have been in the writing business since 2009, and have served many students who have kept coming back and even referred others to us. Therefore under such circumstances, true ATR representation has been a daunting task leading to widespread ATR mythology. Awolalu, J. O. From the early colonial period till today, misinformation about African indigenous spiritualities is spread and believed as truth. In his own bid to modernise the faith, Akpochihala launched a crash course that allows Voudou devotees to become priests in four months, as opposed to the usual three years. (2010). What is African Traditional Religion? In the 1900s, “traditional African religions still claimed the loyalty of majority of the population of sub-Saharan Africa”. ANTITRUST IN AN ERA OF MARKET FAILURE. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, 33(2), 557-606. There are few religions as globally misunderstood as African traditional religions. People often refer to “Africa” as if it is a country rather than a continent. There is a great need to differentiate between legitimate spiritual systems and witchcraft, yet it is widely accepted that human sacrifices were part and parcel of pre-colonial faith systems. ... those misconceptions and misrepresentations of the facts presented by Eurocentric scholars. They are referred to as Nzambi’a Mpungu Tulendo in Kikongo, the central language of the Bantu-Kongo people, which is translates as the “everything in everything”. Many Western historians and scholars have a result perpetuated many of the ARRs myths. Hence, it cannot be avoided in the interaction between Christianity and African Traditional Religion. The represented divinities by the objects act as Supreme Being’s representative and who was not represented by any object in the ATR. In the book, Somé writes “religious colonialism tortures the soul. African indigenous faith systems became “primitive”, uncivilised, a necessary evil that had to be dealt with, and an inferior system that had to be done away with. Will reach you with more assignments, Affordable Care Act Policy Analysis III. Additionally, ATRs carried African people embodiment. It was hard for me but am good to go now, Thanks for the good work to save my studies. Presenting local beliefs as nothing but backwater superstitions was part and parcel of how Christian missionaries operated in their bid to bring their religion and Western civilisation to the dark continent. African religions - African religions - Mythology: In African oral cultures, myths embody philosophical reflections, express values, and identify moral standards. Few people are aware that Voudou (rather than “voodoo”) is a faith based on harmony with nature, one that expressly forbids the killing of another being, or that most African faith systems believe in the concept of one God above all other divinities and deities, who function much as a pantheon of saints. Further ATR myths have also referred to the religions as heathen, paganism and magical. Homosexuality, incest, and bestiality are inherently taboo for those following the Christian Bible . Social Analysis Problem description How complete is our knowledge of the problem? Although the slaves accepted Roman Catholicism, they did not give up their traditional beliefs either. The worshipped objects as a result, have meanings beyond themselves. Thanks a lot, Just wonna say thanks for attending to my assignment guyz. The paper was complete as fast. Pentecostalism has much in common with the way indigenous spiritualities are practiced, with its heavy emphasis on exorcisms and speaking in tongues. With African Traditional Religions you must be much more careful about speaking about belief systems in the same way, because Africans will actually tolerate quite a wide variety of beliefs as long as it supports the same rituals or certain rituals or ritualistic explanations of why this is being done or why this is being believed. Attention—Just as there are everywhere in 49 states across the US modern practice of ritual killings has been a task... The assessment of what was learnt by the trainees from the early colonial period for credibility despite many... Failure. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, â 33 ( )... Traceable origins focus of this new York Times article the worst thing that... Viewing them as the complex systems they are, we are the most preferred.This is no self-proclamation a! 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