Temporal indexical terms such as “today,” “tomorrow,” and “now” refer to different temporal locations with different uses. Time of Grace connects people to God’s grace—his love, glory, and power—so they realize the temporary things of life don’t satisfy. The challenge of reconciling human freedom and divine omniscience is best seen if we presume that God is temporal. To this end, Stump and Kretzmann introduce the notion of “ET (eternal-temporal)-simultaneity:”. was an April 8, 1966, cover story for the news magazine Time. The challenge with this response is that it appears to endorse some of the strategies to make the B-theory work. But God’s time is so far from our concept that it can be difficult not to panic at the thought of trusting it. If it … Some of the most obvious issues include the nature of time, the nature of change and the creation of the universe. In our universe time is basically linear. They will deny, rather, that God cannot experience a maximally full life if he is temporal. Some philosophers have argued that this fact about God’s life requires that he be timeless. It is an open question for many whether time had a beginning or whether the past is infinite. Nor does his life draw closer to its end. Having a present is a TTP, but God’s present is a non-temporal present. The fundamental temporal properties are the tensed properties. (1967) “Omniscience and Indexical Reference,”. Pinnock, Clark, Richard Rice, John Sanders, William Hasker, David Basinger. (Stump and Kretzmann, 1981: pp 230-231.). Our knowledge of facts is conditioned by our indexical location. They think that God brought space into being. Leftow, Brian. Stump and Kretzmann, for example, would not think such a change possible. “Review of God and Time: Four Views ed., Gregory E. Ganssle and God, Time and Eternity by William Lane Craig,”. If God created time as part of his creation of the universe, then it is important whether or not the universe had a beginning at all. He insists that these points are not parts in the life of God. The entirety of the timeless line is one indivisible present while each point on the temporal line is a present (one at a time). What may be the dominant view of philosophers today is that he is temporal but everlasting; that is, God never began to exist and he never will go out of existence. They each imply a motionless state through a period of time. The Scriptures do provide some parameters for acceptable theories of God’s relation to time, however. God is never in a hurry, but he is always on time. Points are not parts, however. The B-theory of time (also known as the tenseless theory or the stasis theory) entails the claim that the most fundamental features of time are the relations of “before,” “after,” and “simultaneous with.” Talk of tenses (past, present and future) can be reduced to talk about these relations. Fitzgerald argues that if a timeless duration does not have these analogues with temporal or spatial duration, it is hard to think of it as a case of bona fide duration. The philosophers whose views have been discussed will disagree about the answer to this question. That is, eternity can be seen as a non-temporal location as any point within time is a temporal location. God created both physical and metaphysical time and God existed entirely without time. Events such as the earth revolving around the sun are regular enough to mark off units of time. For example, the nature of time and the nature of the origin of the universe each have a bearing on whether God is best thought of as timeless or temporal. If time is contingent, then it depends upon God for its existence. An On Time God 2 Peter 3:8-9; Galatians 4:4 Have you ever been late for an appointment or meeting? Her decision to make tea or not stands temporally between the content of God’s beliefs and the occurring of the event. Rogers argues that the line representing timelessness (call this line, “E”) either is made of distinct points or it is not. First of all we have to adjust how we describe God’s omniscience. Different thoughts in God’s mind can be individuated by their respective lengths of duration or at least by their locations within the duration. (ET) for every x and every y, x and y are ET-simultaneous if and only if: If x and y are ET-simultaneous, one is timeless and the other temporal. It all depends, of course, on what the necessary conditions for interaction turn out to be. As far as the Special Theory of Relativity is concerned, there is an absolute temporal simultaneity or an absolute temporal ordering between any two events within each other’s light cones. He is not located at any point in our time line. Not all whens are times, however. Having some TTP is not sufficient to make an event a temporal event, however. Our time is constituted by physical time. Everything is subject to him. While having a duration and being an event are each cases of TTPs, Leftow has well-argued that they are not the sort of TTP that only temporal beings can have. If ET-simultaneity captures the truth about God’s relation to a temporal world, then we do not have to worry about the fall of Rome occurring at the same time that I spill my coffee. The point itself has no extension or parts. This view implies that God is in some sense spaceless or “outside” space. As a result, the term, “eternal” has come to be either ambiguous or a general term that covers various positions. The Scriptures seem to identify a God in time, yet a God that is somehow beyond time, not constrained by it the way we are (1 Peter 3). God’s relation to time, however, is a topic about which there continues to be deep disagreement. Rogers’s position, then, is that God’s timeless life does not involve duration. God’s knowledge is not past but it is timeless. He also comes to their aid and comforts and strengthens them. Can a proponent of divine timelessness make sense of God interacting in these ways? If God is in time and knows everything, then hundreds of years ago, he already knew that Jeanie would make the cup of tea. (1985). Saying God only operates within time seems to ring hollow with His knowing for certain the future of our free choices. Another argument for God’s timelessness begins with the idea that time itself is contingent. This response can be combined with the second and that is to deny that God’s knowledge is mediated by propositions at all. In a recent essay, he defends the idea that such features can be shared without rendering God temporal (Leftow 2002). (1993). The A-theory claims that there is an objective temporal now. Those who think that there are propositions about events that cannot be reduced to propositions of the form “event e occurs at tn,” hold the A-theory of time (or tensed or process theory.) (For more information, see Le Poidevin and MacBeath, 1993; Oaklander and Smith, 1994; and the section “Are there Essentially Tensed Facts?” of the article on Time in this encyclopedia.) (The distinction between the A-theory and the B-theory of time was first articulated by J. M. E. McTaggart; see McTaggart, 1993.). God is timeless without creation and temporal subsequent to creation. He is not an abstract object like a number. 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