Queen Elizabeth I – Tudor Queen Elizabeth Tudor is considered by many to be the greatest monarch in English history. She was declared a bastard after her mother's execution at age 2. However, if both mother and child died, then Elizabeth once again assumed prominence. As a child, no one expected her to comment upon her various stepmothers. Their mental powers were considered to be inferior to men. Did Elizabeth mourn her father? Finally, on 6 July 1553, Edward VI died. Her entry into London and the great coronation procession that followed were masterpieces of political courtship. It was Henry’s sixth and final wife, Katharine Parr, who had the greatest impact upon Elizabeth’s life. Elizabeth didn’t want to return Mary to full power in Scotland, but she didn’t want the Scots to execute her, either. She may have been warned of his intentions – more likely she guessed them. She never married and consciously styled herself as the Virgin Queen, wedded to the nation. In this climate of rebellion and repression, Elizabeth’s life was in great danger. Dudley graciously returned it to her in exchange for lesser lands in her possession. As a teenaged girl with little experience of men, she was flattered by his attention and also a bit frightened. It was rumored that Philip watched the sisters from behind a curtain; whether or not he was there, Mary was content to make peace of sorts. It is probable that she developed a tumor in her stomach which, combined with the lack of a cycle and her own fervent prayers, made her believe she was pregnant. Lord Burleigh (then William Cecil) encouraged military, while Elizabeth, fearful of action as always, hesitated. Robert Wilde is a historian who writes about European history. In poetry, she has been celebrated as an English embodiment of feminine strength associated with such mythic heroines as Judith, Esther, Diana, Astraea, Gloriana, and Minerva. Numerous times, the parliament presented her with official requests that she marry. ‘Proud and haughty, as although she knows she was born of such a mother, she nevertheless does not consider herself of inferior degree to the Queen, whom she equals in self-esteem; nor does she believe herself less legitimate than her Majesty, alleging in her own favour that her mother would never cohabit with the King unless by way of marriage, with the authority of the Church…. In fact, Elizabeth had suspected her brother was ill and set out from Hatfield to visit him just a few weeks before Edward died, but Dudley’s men intercepted her and sent her home. She was accompanied by six of her ladies and two gentleman-attendants. Since he had ostensibly disinherited Mary because of this act, he couldn’t let Elizabeth inherit – it simply wasn’t logical. They were never particularly close though he treated her with affection on her few visits to his court. Helen Hackett: We first thought that 1593 would be a good focal point to think about representations of Elizabeth as an aging woman.The more we looked into it, we realised that it’s an incredibly eventful year. She begged to be allowed to write to her sister, and the men agreed. He had already bought the wardship of Lady Jane Grey, a Tudor cousin and heir in Henry VIII’s will. She summoned a parliament early in the year because she needed money for military campaigns in Ireland and the Netherlands. Philip, always prudent, preferred to know his sister-in-law before making an enemy of her. They decided to wait until the next morning, Palm Sunday, when the streets would be nearly deserted since everyone would be in church. She was a traitor, and it was only a matter of time before the Protestants tried to place either Jane or Elizabeth upon the throne. Now old and sickly, imprisoned in one moldy castle after another, she remained a very popular figure. Although Elizabeth resisted calls to accuse and execute Mary at first, ultimately, she was persuaded by evidence that Mary had been party to the plots, not just an unwilling figurehead. It could not be otherwise; she was the only alternative to Mary’s rule. And there was soon much reason for discontent. She had faced such interrogations during Thomas Seymour’s fall from grace, and could not be easily intimidated. The queen had ordered that her sister be treated honorably and given limited freedom; Elizabeth was allowed to walk in the orchard and gardens. Originally, this dislike was because of Elizabeth’s mother, Anne Boleyn. As she left for East Anglia, she didn’t know her brother was already dead but she sent a note to the Imperial ambassador Simon Renard; once she knew of Edward’s death, she said, she would declare herself queen. The government was able to suppress the rebellion before it spread very far and Wyatt was arrested. Anne Boleyn. It was Dudley who pointed out the logical inconsistency – that Mary ‘could not be put by unless the Lady Elizabeth were put by also.’. It was only Dudley’s appeal to her religious convictions which convinced her to accept the throne. In her personal writings, she showed wit and intelligence. But Dr Owen was busy tending to Queen Mary and told Bedingfield that his charge must be patient. She prides herself on her father and glories in him; everybody saying that she also resembles him more than the Queen does and he therefore always liked her and had her brought up in the same way as the Queen.’ the Venetian ambassador Giovanni Michiel describes Elizabeth; spring 1557. Mary died on November 17, 1558, and Elizabeth inherited the throne, the third and final of Henry VIII’s children to do so. She dazzled even her greatest enemies. Finally, on 7 July, Mary finally sent permission to Woodstock for Elizabeth to write to her and the Council about her various concerns. For his part, de Noailles reported that Elizabeth complained her coronet was too heavy and made her head ache. And so Jane and the equally unfortunate Guildford Dudley were executed. She was once again accorded a place of honor amongst the English ladies, though not the highest position as was her due. Still, the stress – which she handled with outward aplomb – took its toll on her physical health. The small rebellion led by Jane’s father clearly did not help matters. The presence of her strong and balanced rule facilitated this. But she had always suffered from digestive and menstrual troubles. The visit was a marked success for Edward was open in his affection. But it was to be another three years before she would become queen of England. Her household accounts, which came under the management of William Cecil (who later became her secretary of state), show evidence of a cultivated and lively mind, as well as a love of entertainment: fees for musicians, musical instruments, and a variety of books. Finally, on 3 August, the queen’s household departed to Oatlands and the pregnancy was not mentioned again. Elizabeth I. Her father died in 1547 and he was succeeded by his son Edward. She was committed above all else to preserving English peace and stability; her genuine love for her subjects was legendary. After Parr’s death in 1548, Seymour began scheming to achieve more power and secretly plotted to marry Elizabeth. But the various acts and oaths only cost the lives of several prominent Catholics, among them Sir Thomas More and Bishop John Fisher. Meanwhile, John Dudley had been quietly manipulating other councilors and the young king to gain ascendancy. When Parr became pregnant in 1548, she sent Elizabeth away to set up her own household, following incidents of her husband, Thomas Seymour, apparently attempting to groom or seduce Elizabeth. It was rumored that Dudley had sent councilors to her, offering a large bribe if she would just renounce her claim to the throne. She now recognized him for what he was – a conscientious, unimaginative civil servant with a difficult assignment. He allowed the feuding brothers to destroy each other. But it was a false alarm; the next three months were spent in a state of suspended disbelief. Like her sister, Elizabeth would undoubtedly destroy Dudley, making him the scapegoat for Edward’s ineffectual regime. There she awaited Mary’s official arrival into the city. Without asking permission, Elizabeth immediately prostrated herself and declared her innocence. In 1588, he launched the infamous Armada. The queen died on 4 September 1548 of childbed fever. Her body was first placed in the vault of her grandfather King Henry VII. This was perhaps a conscious attempt to distance herself from Mary, a typical Catholic princess who dressed in all the glittering and garish finery she could afford. It was to Henry’s (small) credit that he always acknowledged Elizabeth as his own, and took pride in her intellectual accomplishments. Elizabeth again told him she would rather be unjustly imprisoned than gain freedom with lies. But Elizabeth had other ideas. When she traveled about the countryside, crowds gathered to see her, a Protestant princess renowned for her virtue and learning, her appearance modest and pleasing. Did Elizabeth really believe she was wrongfully imprisoned? She was occasionally interrogated by members of Mary’s council, but she held firm to her innocence. The failure of Dudley’s ambitions is discussed at the Lady Jane Grey site. She even composed a little. Flowers, sweets, cakes and other small gifts were given to her. In the early years of her reign, she often went out to the country on annual visits to aristocratic houses, showing herself to most of the public along the road in the country and townsfolk of southern England. His letter implied that Elizabeth knew of the revolt in advance, and repeated rumors that she was off gathering armed supporters. This was dangerous talk, as Elizabeth soon discovered. And the Wyatt rebellion had merely reinforced Philip’s natural inclination to tread lightly. Before Thee, O God, do I speak it, having no other friend but Thee alone.’ She then noticed the yeoman warders gathered to receive her beyond the gate. The coasts of North and South America were first explored during her reign, with the first colonies being set up in the so-called “New World”. But she was sadly mistaken. They did not meet immediately. They could wait a few hours and take her to the Tower in the darkest part of night, but the council disagreed. Elizabeth was born to Henry VIII of England and Anne Boleyn. During the nine days of Jane’s reign, Elizabeth had continued her pretense of illness. But the confident predictions of astrologers and physicians were wrong and the longed-for prince turned out to be a princess. But at her accession, the moment of her great triumph, she was prepared to be conciliatory. https://www.ancient-origins.net/history-famous-people/queen- The queen was not pleased. She was torn – though Dudley hid the true extent of the king’s illness, the Imperial ambassador had kept Mary informed. Unlike their half-sister Mary, both Edward and Elizabeth were raised Protestant during its most formative years. Architecture, music, and painting also experienced a boom in popularity and innovation. The queen was reportedly pregnant and she and Philip would open Parliament together on 12 November. The time she ruled in was named the Elizabethan Age after her. After his death, she had good cause to wish him alive again. She was only the third queen to rule England in her own right; the other two examples, her cousin Lady Jane Grey and half-sister Mary I, were disastrous. Dudley recognized Elizabeth’s formidable intelligence. He was the first non-royal Englishman given that title. He left explicit instructions that she treat her sister well. A kind woman who believed passionately inPrincess Elizabeth, c1546, attributed to William Scrots education and religious reform, Katharine was a devoted stepmother. She told Gardiner she would rather remain in prison forever than admit to crimes she had never committed. During her 45-year reign, England’s Elizabeth I carefully cultivated her public image. When her parents insisted she wear it, Jane replied, ‘Nay, that were a shame to follow my Lady Mary against God’s word, and leave my Lady Elizabeth, which followeth God’s word.’. No councilor wanted the responsibility of keeping her in close confinement at their homes; it was too unpleasant and potentially dangerous. The queen’s bedroom was lit with flickering candlelight; the queen herself was half-hidden in shadow. Elizabeth's parents married after her father broke with Rome and divorced his first wife Catherine of Aragon. Elizabeth was sent to a small manor house a few miles from Oatlands where she played another waiting game, only this time with some measure of freedom and hope. Under the 1536 ‘Second Act of Succession’, which declared both her and the 19 year old Mary illegitimate, Parliament gave Henry the ability to determine his children’s status, as well as the actual succession. All of April was spent in a state of readiness. Elizabeth refused to allow their examination; she preferred to commit her body to God rather than to the eyes of strangers, she told Bedingfield. Two weeks later, the most powerful members of the council appeared to chide her for not submitting to the queen’s authority; she was told to admit her past wrongdoing and seek the queen’s forgiveness. Now, Tyrwhit told the princess, confess all; he wanted confirmation of the charge that Seymour and Elizabeth planned to wed. Men often gave Elizabeth unsolicited advice, particularly in regards to the will of God, which only men were believed to be able to interpret. Gardiner replied that if she wanted her liberty and former position, she must tell a different story; only by admitting her past faults, confessing all sins, could she hope for forgiveness. With Bedingfield’s arrival, Elizabeth lost her almost preternatural self-control and she asked her guards ‘whether the Lady Jane’s scaffold was taken away or no?’ When told it was gone, she asked about Bedingfield, and if ‘her murdering were secretly committed to his charge, he would see the execution thereof?’. Mary and Elizabeth, first cousins and Queens of their respective countries, had a rocky relationship that dominated English-Scottish politics for 20 years. Queen Elizabeth I (1533 – 1603) ruled over England and Ireland for a period of 44 years and 127 days, making her the ninth longest reigning British monarch. Elizabeth spent just two months in the Tower of London, but she had no idea that her stay would be so brief – and it did not feel particularly brief. Somerset was a kind man in private life and genuinely dedicated to economic and religious reform in England but, as a politician, he failed miserably. Elizabeth’s reign marked a change from Mary’s Catholicism and a return to the policies of Henry VIII, whereby the English monarch was head of an English church. When she became queen in 1558, she was twenty-five years old, a survivor of scandal and danger, and considered illegitimate by most Europeans. England’s Protestant religion put it at odds with neighboring Catholic Spain and, to a lesser extent, France. With no evidence found against her, and Queen Mary’s husband viewing her as an asset for a political marriage, Elizabeth avoided execution and was released. Mary protested passionately, begging him to stay; it was clear to everyone that she truly loved her husband. Elizabeth quickly assembled a Privy Council and promoted a number of key advisors: One, William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), was appointed principal secretary. He replied to her that, God willing, she would soon wear a heavier crown. And as for the traitor Wyatt, he might peradventure write me a letter but on my faith I never received any from him; and as for the copy of my letter sent to the French king, I pray God confound me eternally if ever I sent him word, message, token or letter by any means, and to this truth I will stand it to my death. He had come to the Tower on 5 May as the new Constable, replacing Sir John Gage, and his arrival had caused Elizabeth no end of terror. If Edward died without heirs, Mary would inherit the throne; if Mary died without heirs, Elizabeth would become queen. For example, on 17 March 1552, she arrived at St James’s Palace with ‘a great company of lords, knights and gentlemen’ along with over 200 ladies and a company of yeomen. She also demanded the return of her loyal servants for if they did not return, she said, her guilt would be assumed. 1501-1536): The Union That Sparked Reformation, Beheaded. An adulthood passed in anxiety and tribulation had marred her health and appearance. For Elizabeth, these changes in her father’s marital fortunes did not pass unnoticed. Dudley attempted to place Mary and Elizabeth in his power while Edward was dying. Understandably, she had far more of an impact with the young Edward and Elizabeth than with Mary, who was just four years her junior. View the list One man with a head on his shoulders is worth a dozen without. So the throne would pass to the legitimate – and Protestant – Lady Jane Grey. Elizabeth did not hesitate to demonstrate her own wit and learning. Mary suffered a false pregnancy in 1555, leaving Elizabeth all but certain to inherit. She could not like Elizabeth, nor trust her. She even held her hand as they spoke. Dudley was enraged by Elizabeth’s refusal but he could do nothing. He disinherited Mary because of her Catholicism; however, it was officially sanctioned because of her illegitimacy. Henry VIII married Anne of Cleves on Twelfth Night (6 January) 1540. Her reign was marked by immense growth for England, especially in world power and cultural influence. While she enjoyed her newfound liberty, the burning of Protestant heretics began in earnest. When Sir Thomas Wyatt, the son of her mother’s great poetic admirer, led a rebellion in January 1554, matters came to an unpleasant impasse. She was not as bloody, as vile or as hate-filled as monarchs that went before, but her reign was steeped in controversy and she divided pinion. She fashioned herself and her kingdom into a major world power by believing in the qualities of the men who surrounded her, exploiting their weaknesses and admiring their strengths. It is a telling feature of her character that she could often forgive treason against herself, but would not countenance treason against God. The burnings, coupled with the Spanish marriage, caused enough resentment; but, unfortunately for Mary, famine and poverty added to her list of woes. But he also had a tendency toward religious asceticism which worsened as he grew older. Dozens of nurses and midwives crowded into Hampton Court, joined by a throng of noble ladies who would assist in the delivery. Eventually, his grandiose plans unraveled and he was arrested. He was primarily determined to preserve the Protestant regime in England. The letter was long, rambling, and repetitious – proof of her fear and trepidation: I have heard in my time of many cast away for want of coming to the presence of their Prince…. Renard had urged Mary to execute Jane and imprison Elizabeth so that Philip would be safe in England. She was his ‘sweet sister Temperance,’ unlike Mary who continued to defy his religious policy. Dudley wished to destroy the Seymour protectorship and seize power for himself. They, too, had lived in the Tower under threat of execution; both had been convicted of treason. Elizabeth herself arrived at the Tower just six weeks later, and her cousin’s fate must have weighed heavily on her mind. He also had terrible political instincts. This was often followed by the explanatory ‘the king’s daughter.’ It was an awkward situation which the king saw no reason to resolve. After he was executed for treason, Elizabeth experienced her first brush with scandal and had to endure rigorous investigation. Elizabeth was concerned that her imprisonment in the countryside would remove her too much from the public eye and her ceaseless letter-writing was an attempt to reassert her position as princess of England. Mini-series about the the public and private lives of the later years of Queen Elizabeth I. She knew how to use courtship as a useful political tool, and she wielded it masterfully. The campaign was entirely successful, maintaining Elizabeth as one of England’s best-loved monarchs. In the third week of April 1555, almost a year since she was sent to Woodstock, Elizabeth was brought to Hampton Court Palace. She sent another note to Dudley, telling him she was too ill to travel. Indeed, she drove Tyrwhit to exasperation; ‘in no way will she confess any practice by Mistress Ashley or the cofferer concerning my lord Admiral; and yet I do see it in her face that she is guilty and do perceive as yet she will abide more storms ere she accuse Mistress Ashley,’ he wrote to Somerset, ‘I do assure your Grace she hath a very good wit and nothing is gotten of her but by great policy.’ Elizabeth refused to scapegoat her loyal servants and defiantly asserted her complete innocence. It was being whispered that Dudley had poisoned the king to place his daughter-in-law on the throne. Elizabeth kept the curtains of the litter pulled back as she entered the city, and the citizens were able to see her pale, frightened face. This is also called the "Bisley Boy" theory. On 30 April a rumor reached London that a male child had been born and celebrations ensued. She had been released into the care of Sir Henry Bedingfield, a Catholic supporter of Queen Mary whose father had guarded Katharine of Aragon during her last years at Kimbolton Castle. Understandably, her subjects were less than thrilled. A major factor in Elizabeth I’s reign becoming known as England’s … But Catherine was thirty years younger than Henry and soon enough resumed an affair with a former lover. Elizabeth I is buried in Westminster Abbey. For example, Edward VI had given Dudley Hatfield House, which was currently Elizabeth’s residence. Their partnership would prove to be fruitful and he remained in her service for 40 years. The next morning, 17 March 1554, arrived cold and grey; there was a steady rain. She waited under a canopy until the barge began to slow; she then saw that they would enter beneath Traitor’s Gate, beneath St Thomas’s Tower. He is the author of the History in an Afternoon textbook series. He was willing to move England slowly back into the Catholic fold; faced with Mary’s impatience, it was Philip who advised moderation. Because Mary wed her Catholic cousin, Philip II of Spain, Thomas Wyatt (the son of one of Anne Boleyn's friends) led a rebellion, which Mary blamed on Elizabeth. These killings have earned Mary the nickname ‘Bloody Mary’ and blighted her reputation. Elizabeth refused to send troops, instead sending money to support the Protestants, who overthrew the Queen Regent. But his marriage to Mary was one of political necessity and Philip had no intention of threatening its success with unpopular religious policies. Their two parties entered London together, the sisters riding side by side. In that matter, Elizabeth remained distant, preferring to let her siblings argue without her. Her new husband was Thomas Seymour, the younger brother of Lord Protector Somerset and uncle to the new King Edward. Mary refused; she already blamed Anne Boleyn (and, by extension, Elizabeth) for the sad alteration of her own fortunes. Elizabeth was terrified. The queen waited for her at Whitehall but they did not meet immediately. First, Elizabeth had to deal with the growing threat of Mary Queen of Scots, who had a strong and legitimate (especially in the eyes of Catholics) claim to the throne of England. This was the beginning of one of the most trying times of her life. Man Shoulders Worth. Even her supporters believed her position dangerous and uncertain. But she was told that Mary was leaving for Oxford where she would hold a Parliament. Elizabeth had a dim view of romantic love and, given her father’s example, who can blame her? Like Elizabeth, Mary had her illegitimacy established by an act of Parliament during Henry VIII’s reign. It failed miserably and he was executed. He was handsome, charming, and very ambitious. But they had no real claim to the title of ‘princess’ and were known as ‘the lady Elizabeth’ and ‘the lady Mary’. The main reason is that Dudley was well aware that Elizabeth Tudor would not be his puppet, unlike Jane Grey whom he had married to his son Guildford. According to the French ambassador, Philip visited her three days later but Mary never came. Queen Elizabeth I reigned for 44 years and 127 days. The journey to Woodstock certainly raised her spirit. Philip, however, was far more sensitive to the political implications of such an act. Of course, the question arises – Elizabeth was Protestant, so why not put her on the throne instead of Jane? With Helen Mirren, Hugh Dancy, Toby Jones, Patrick Malahide. The years of Elizabeth’s rule are often referred to simply using her name—The Elizabethan Age. Soon enough, events moved too quickly for the princess to be his primary concern. However in 1606 Elizabeth's coffin was transferred to the Henry VII Chapel in Westminster Abbey, and placed beneath a monument to her erected by King James I. Eventually she would realize the true extent of her support. Certainly it placed great strain on Katharine Parr, who had become pregnant soon after her marriage. Jane was already safely wed to an Englishman. Your Highness’s most faithful subject that hath been from the beginning and will be to my end, Elizabeth’. After the execution, Elizabeth claimed that the warrant was dispatched against her wishes; whether that was true or not is unknown. He also passed the patents to her lands, which allowed her more income. Eustace Chapuys, the Imperial ambassador and enemy of Anne Boleyn, described the birth to his master as ‘a portrait of Elizabeth’s mother, Anne Boleyn great disappointment and sorrow to the King, the Lady herself and to others of her party.’ But for the next two years, Henry VIII was willing to hope for a son to join this healthy daughter. The next week passed with no word from anyone. Elizabeth I began her reign on 17th November 1558 as a young woman of only 25 years of age. Her procession into London and coronation were masterpieces of political statement and planning, and her accession was treated warmly by many in England who hoped for greater religious toleration. Along with such classical subjects as rhetoric, languages, philosophy, and history, Elizabeth also studied theology. It was a stalemate. Their mutual faith was an important connection with the increasingly devout Edward. She wore each color to great effect. 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